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Best biographies on Lenin?

2020.09.28 20:50 Franco192 Best biographies on Lenin?

I read this on another Reddit thread about Lenin biographies, here is what it says from this source (https://www.reddit.com/communism101/comments/20ejw0/whats_the_best_or_most_factually_accurate/cg3lzwh?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x&context=3):
Lenin for beginners is a good really short very basic introduction to his life and a little bit about his thought an the context it was in but of course it's limited and not a "proper biography". Lih's book is quite decent in some ways but he has some big flaws. For one it's really short and only brushes on a lot of really important stuff (while giving some details on more minor ones that Lih simply likes because they're things he's investigated). I would take him with a big grain of salt though. He is not a Marxist and his works are driven by little "pet theories" that are more comfortable in the works of bourgeois historians. He sees Lenin's communism and revolutionary activity as being completely driven by his brother's execution. He sees this as influencing Lenin's political lines and even makes up what Lenin must've been thinking about his brother at later points in his life. He also has a pet theory that Lenin was really just Kautsky who "stuck to his guns" and didn't go "renegade". While Lenin, like all major figures of the 2nd international, was influenced by Kautsky he also broke with him on some significant things and made developments of his own. Lih ignores these things completely and does all he can to smooth over differences between Lenin and Kautsky. That being said it's probably the best book you mentioned in your comment. It's the closest of the three to a "proper biography" even though it doesn't get into too many details of his life or explain his theory in great detail. If you wanted a really short bio of Lenin (like 100-150 pages) then this isn't so bad. At least it's not anti-Lenin. Lenin's Last Struggle is not really a biography of Lenin, but rather an attempt to claim that Lenin's later years were spent fighting Stalin and the bureaucracy in the USSR. While it's true Lenin criticized the bureaucracy (actually Stalin did too) and had some disagreements with Stalin I think Lewin reaches way too far. He basically want to paint Lenin as a Trotskyist and it just doesn't work. If anyone is looking for an "anti stalin" Lenin biography I'd actually suggest Ronald Clark's "Lenin". It is has a lot more information both about Lenin's life and a little more about his theory rather than just focusing on the end of his life and trying to prove a specific point (though I don't think Clark was a Marxist). Clark focuses heavily on Lenin's personal life and has some really interesting information a lot of people who have read all Lenin's political texts would be unaware of or might even find surprising.
There are 100 and a half biographies on Lenin. Can someone give me one unbiased account of Lenin's background? I am more or less interested in Lenin's youth up to the point of his death, and how his relationship were to the other Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. Which book would be the one that's the newest and more up to date? Some of them are released from 1900-1970, but I was imagining a good biography is after Soviet archives were released. Maybe I should also add that I've not read much Marx or Lenin before, or no Marx at all.
submitted by Franco192 to communism101 [link] [comments]


2020.09.28 20:49 mogsuru Best biographies on Lenin?

I read this on another Reddit thread about Lenin biographies, here is what it says from this source (https://www.reddit.com/communism101/comments/20ejw0/whats_the_best_or_most_factually_accurate/cg3lzwh?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x&context=3):
Lenin for beginners is a good really short very basic introduction to his life and a little bit about his thought an the context it was in but of course it's limited and not a "proper biography".
Lih's book is quite decent in some ways but he has some big flaws. For one it's really short and only brushes on a lot of really important stuff (while giving some details on more minor ones that Lih simply likes because they're things he's investigated). I would take him with a big grain of salt though. He is not a Marxist and his works are driven by little "pet theories" that are more comfortable in the works of bourgeois historians. He sees Lenin's communism and revolutionary activity as being completely driven by his brother's execution. He sees this as influencing Lenin's political lines and even makes up what Lenin must've been thinking about his brother at later points in his life.
He also has a pet theory that Lenin was really just Kautsky who "stuck to his guns" and didn't go "renegade". While Lenin, like all major figures of the 2nd international, was influenced by Kautsky he also broke with him on some significant things and made developments of his own. Lih ignores these things completely and does all he can to smooth over differences between Lenin and Kautsky. That being said it's probably the best book you mentioned in your comment. It's the closest of the three to a "proper biography" even though it doesn't get into too many details of his life or explain his theory in great detail. If you wanted a really short bio of Lenin (like 100-150 pages) then this isn't so bad. At least it's not anti-Lenin.
Lenin's Last Struggle is not really a biography of Lenin, but rather an attempt to claim that Lenin's later years were spent fighting Stalin and the bureaucracy in the USSR. While it's true Lenin criticized the bureaucracy (actually Stalin did too) and had some disagreements with Stalin I think Lewin reaches way too far. He basically want to paint Lenin as a Trotskyist and it just doesn't work.
If anyone is looking for an "anti stalin" Lenin biography I'd actually suggest Ronald Clark's "Lenin". It is has a lot more information both about Lenin's life and a little more about his theory rather than just focusing on the end of his life and trying to prove a specific point (though I don't think Clark was a Marxist). Clark focuses heavily on Lenin's personal life and has some really interesting information a lot of people who have read all Lenin's political texts would be unaware of or might even find surprising.
There are 100 and a half biographies on Lenin. Can someone give me one unbiased account of Lenin's background? I am more or less interested in Lenin's youth up to the point of his death, and how his relationship were to the other Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. Which book would be the one that's the newest and more up to date? Some of them are released from 1900-1970, but I was imagining a good biography is after Soviet archives were released. Maybe I should also add that I've not read much Marx or Lenin before, or no Marx at all.
submitted by mogsuru to Socialism_101 [link] [comments]


2020.09.28 08:48 inlieuofbrain Portrayals of Countryhumans. What I think and why do I think and why it was a bad idea to think

Hi. I was bored so I wrote this.
(Also side note: when I refer to “most,” I’m mainly referring to what I see on the sub so my perception is pretty biased)
There aren’t really “accurate” portrayals of countries. Countries are made up of so many aspects like history, government, people, culture, geography, conflicts, etc. Most of it is based off interpretation. And yes this is assuming that these humans are COUNTRIES. Not just individual people from those countries. This is an important distinction since there’s more liberty for individual people.
In terms of gendesex then that would be up to the person personifying them. Most countries are referred to as the motherland (Russia being the most obvious) while others are referred to as the fatherland (ex: Germany, Sweden). Although many of the countries are called “motherlands,” in terms of people, men are primarily the most noticeable in history as soldiers, government officials, and other important figures. However, this ignores the women that make up the country. They can be personified as nonbinary or genderfluid since they’re countries after all. How do you assign a gender to land? It’s confusing and usually up to the person personifying them
For sexuality, ehh. Some countries have had pretty good relations with each other but not enough for a romantic relationship. How would that be determined anyway? Countries in the past have always been in conflict with others. Also sexuality comes into trouble with the gender question. If sexuality is determined by the percentage of people, then everyone would be straight (but date who? And why?).
For relationships, the majority of countryhumans will pretty much dislike everyone except a few allies and even then they’ll keep a close eye on them. In one century, Country A will come to the aide of Country B. In the next century, Country B backstabs Country A. At this point, everyone should have trust issues. Taking into account politics, everyone should have even MORE trust issues.
For culture, stereotypes are prevalent which is pretty skin-deep. For countries like MURICA and Canada, they’re made of people from all over the world so they’re pretty multicultural compared to a country like Japan which is like 97.8% Japanese. So how is a country’s culture determined? Is it based off the majority or a mix? How can one person accurately personify all countries’ culture without living in them? There’s probably different regions in that country with changes in culture as well.
For personality, how is this determined as the most accurate personality for a country? A country consists of many people and they’re all different. The person can be muscle meathead to owo femboy to nerdy bookworm to dumb bimbo. Going off of stereotypes isn’t exactly “accurate” and would make a pretty skin-deep character. Maybe its interactions with other countries is a better factor to look at but that changes depending on the country. The personality is primarily based off the personifier’s interpretation. Some are just so far-fetched they can only be deemed as inaccurate though (Nazi Germany and America are the most obvious). If the personality and physique is based off military then some countries (cough cough AMERICA cough cough) would be absolutely jacked. They would interfere in everyone’s business because my country just does that shit. For countries that don’t have as big of militaries, would they be portrayed as weak twigs? That sounds pretty insulting to portray a whole-ass country as a bunch of weaklings. Would a country be portrayed as its “ideal person”? (Think of propaganda posters and stuff like that) It’s not very accurate to the people if that’s the case cause that’s ignoring all the bad underneath (poverty, racism, sexism, corruption, etc). It also isn’t very interesting if every countryhuman is personified as “perfect” and “ideal.” It would give off a false impression of the country and the people of that country. That could be said for other portrayals too.
NAZI GERMANY IS NOT A FEMBOY.
I don’t know who would use their powerful sack of meat piloting our flesh bodies to make a terrible, genocidal regime a femboy. Just why? WHY? To answer my own horrible question. This is likely due to the portrayal of the Soviet Union. The USSR (which is also horrible, mind you. Can’t ignore the Holodomor, threat of nuclear war, and those gulags) is personified as a tough “daddy” (I feel like throwing up). A lot of fans of the countryhumans fandom are from Russia since countryhumans originated in Russia (if I remember correctly). I’m guessing that they learned that Nazi Germany was absolutely demolished by the Soviet Union. (I think that Russia has a better view of the USSR than the satellite states so that could factor in the portrayal). Hearing this, Nazi Germany is personified as an owo femboy and the USSR is uhhhhh what I referred to before (ew). Other people see this and use that interpretation as their own. Similar situation occurs with America and Russia. However, this is mostly speculation but it seems pretty likely at this point when my faith is at the lowest point.
As an American, I lose it every time I see owo America and when I see “Ame” like bruh the acronym “USA” is right there. “Ame” sounds like it’s referring to the Americas. Ya know? The whole 2 continents? Yeah. I know that people of the USA are referred to as “Americans” cause USAers is a mouthful but using “Ame” just sounds like you’re referring to the two continents. Americans more commonly refer to themselves as the latter part of the name and not the former part. “Murica” makes a bit more sense because we citizens of the USA like to display our ironic/unironic patriotism by chanting “Murica” every time another country dare exists.
Ok, I got off-track. I just don’t like Ame. It looks weird to my freedom-loving, oil-guzzling, crayon-eating eyes. This is more of a personal issue than anything. Doesn’t matter if you do use it.
Hoo boy. Genocide, homicide, suicide, familicide, and much more. I see so much art romanticizing or straight-up ignoring serious stuff. Yeah yeah most of it’s edgy art drawn by teens so I don’t care. They’re in every fandom. BUT, genocide? That happened in real life? Really? Cringe bro. People really out here romanticizing Nazi Germany, the USSR, and genocide over here and it’s schnasty. The fandom has a lot of preteens and teens, and I’m seeing some worrying instances where they go “owo third reich is so cute owo” and it pains me. It makes me want to pray to God to end my suffering and I’m not even religious.
The problem with stuff and ships with Nazi Germany and others is that these countries are REAL.
(((NO COUNTRIES ARENT FUNNY COLORFUL ALIEN BALL FICTIONAL CHARACTERS. PEOPLE LIVE ON THEM IF YOU DIDNT NOTICE)))
I don’t give one flying fuck what someone ships unless it’s real. If it’s 2 real people then that’s really weird. But these are real countries with real history that you can’t just brush aside. If you do, it’s ignorant and just insulting to ship an actual genocider to its victim. That shit’s messed up. If you don’t see why then I have some bad news for you.
(And yes there’s a lot of “I think”s and guesses because I don’t wanna assume things of people from other countries and how the country works. I don’t live everywhere. I just live in America)
If you’re part of the countryhuman fandom then feel free to clarify things or tell me I’m wrong. I’m not in the fandom after all so I don’t know the whole schtick with it. It doesn’t really affect me if someone portrays a country inaccurately in the end. I’ll just be really mad and sulk in my room when I see femboy America.
Unfortunately, I gotta go to bed so see ya. Maybe I’ll refine my statements later cause my brain’s mush from doing work
TD;LR: Many countryhumans are pretty stinky and inaccurate. How do you make an accurate portrayal? You can’t really. That’s up to the interpreter
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2020.09.27 17:18 SanMarinoStronk Calm Before the Storm 0.1.3 has been released!

Patch notes here:
### ADDITIONS ###
### REWORKED FOCUS TREES ###
### BALANCE ###
### BUG FIXING ###
### GFX ###
### LOCALISATION ###
### AI ###

Although we said that 0.1.2 was the last patch in a while, we decided to do one more update to fix some important issues and add some additional content. Unless there are major bugs or issues, don't expect any more updates soon, while we work on more content for the next version!
submitted by SanMarinoStronk to CBTSmod [link] [comments]


2020.09.27 04:25 WerewolfOverlord Earth 999: Season 2 Episode 16: The Return Of Lenin

The year is 1918 in Imperial Russian at the infamous Winter Palace. Tsar Nicholas the second us enjoying an evening with his family when the doors are burst open. Armed workers and soldiers burst in and open fire. Within a few weeks, the entire royal family was shot and a new political party ruled over the nation. The leader if this nation, the father of communism was Vladimir Lenin. He led with an iron fist, oppressing all who oppose him. Then in 1924, Lenin fell into a coma and later died. For more than 65 years, the Soviet Union ruled and dominated until 1991. Many leaders were head of this infamous nation.
2021: Its the middle of March in New Russia. The Collective had been annoyed with Makarov's handling of the country. They couldn't control the Germans. Eclipse, leader of the Navy, decided New Russia needed a different leader. As the historical documents filled the office, Eclipse and her sisters were exhausted. Then a new plan formed. A plan to reform the most infamous country to exist. Eclipse found the files for former Soviet leaders. One stuck out. She went to Tsunami and said," Makarov is failing, I'm not saying we should kill him, but he agrees that we need a new toy and I found the man for the job." Tsunami asked," Who did you choose?" Eclipse handed her a file from 1924. Tsunami opened it and said," Huh, this might work. Who is it?" Eclipse said," Its the founder of the USSR, Vladimir Lenin. " Tsunami asked," I assume you've located the remains? " Eclipse said," Luckily, Lenin's body was preserved so we don't have to rebuild it." Tsunami said," Selina and I say we do it."
The Rebirth of Communism: Eclipse and a few mystics opened Lenin's tomb. The brought him to the Winter Palace and placed him on the alter. Eclipse chanted in Latin. A green glow engulfed Lenin's body. A red beam shown down on him. A white mist was absorbed by the body. Once the light were gone, Eclipse said in Russian," Comrade Lenin? Are you awake?" Lenin's eyes opened and he sat up. He looked around the former palace and said," This place has changed since my day. What year is it?" Eclipse replied," It's 2021. We brought you back from Hell. The people need you." Lenin looked at the werewolf and said," People have changed as well. " Eclipse said," I'm not human and neither is most of the government, there and hundreds of species on Earth totaling 30 billion people. We wish for you to reclaim your title as leader of Russia." Lenin grabbed a pistol and aimed it at Eclipse. Eclipse said," I mean you no harm, we merely wish for you reclaim your old status." Lenin lowered the gun and said," Where is Stalin? Why didn't you bring him back?" Eclipse replied, "I couldn't find the body Please don't talk about the Nazi thing either, that's a separate event." Lenin set the gun down and walked around the palace. Eclipse followed him. A week later, Makarov stepped down from his role. In his place, an old face of terror. On March 25, 2021, the Collective held a ceremony for the new president of Russia. Lenin's first act was to rebuild the Soviet Union. He rebuilt the old Soviet government with the Collective as his ministers. Lenin and Tsunami got along quite well and hung out together. The Collective were shocked that Tsunami had a friend. Lenin made her the second in command of Soviet Russia. As a present for Lenin, Tsunami had Eclipse resurrect the entire Soviet Army. It seemed Lenin and Tsunami were getting close. A relationship that the Collective could manage, but meant death and destruction for the former Russian puppet states. The duo decided to take back the puppet states by force. 900,000 people died as a result of the invasion. On March 31, Tsunami and Lenin announced that they were dating. The Government poured out support for the new pair. The people were opposed to the President dating. This feeling was widespread and a NATO supported plot to kill Tsunami went bad. Lenin was outraged and started up the Soviet work camps to punish the people. The free world now had 2 superpower nations against them. A large conflict would ensue involving the Central Axis Powers versus the Allies. Russia became a spectator to the carnage while supporting the Central Axis Powers. Eclipse had brought back the Nazis, Imperial Japan and Fascist Italy along with Bulgaria, The Ottoman Empire, and Austria Hungary. This large force of evil started planning for war. A council was formed by members of the Central Axis Powers. Hitler, Mussolini, Hirohito, Franz Joseph, Osman the First, Ferdinand the First, and Kaiser Wilhelm the Second formed the council with Lenin as its head. The first charge of World War 3 began and Russia watched in glee.
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2020.09.26 09:04 PalmPines34 Urgent Help Needed! (Please read)

The best friend of my father passed away last night (I'm from Hungary GMT+1), and it was accompanied by strong synchronicity and left my father broken completely right now, it's 8:20 am as I am writing this.
I felt, and still feel a strong sense of spiritual importance permeating the whole affair, especially on an intuitive level, but also because of the high frequency synchronicities surrounding the timing of the whole thing.
I am a university student studying comparative linguistics and mythology, and I research ancient sacred traditions as a hobby, and I became a believer along the way, as I was fortunate enough to partake in shamanic ceremonies in many distant parts of the world, however I must admit that I'm familiar with just the fundamentals of astrology, and numerology, and even though I meditate and practice yoga, I'm yet to gain any psychic abilities.
It completely disrupted family plans and life for all of us, as my dad and his partner were to go vacationing to greece for two weeks, by car, early this morning, but now, the whole thing is cancelled.
Could someone help me to see if yesterday, or today is a special astrological date/event maybe, either for me personally, or for my dad, or perhaps something that is a global, shared event.
Or if anyone can help with any psychic ability to shed light on the spiritual meaning of this event, I would be eternally grateful.
My info: Birth date: 1998/04/03 Loc: Budapest, Hungary
My father's info: Birth date: 1970/06/25 Loc: Kiev, USSR
This happened exactly to the day, 3 month from his last birthday, if I'm counting right, but I didn't get much sleep. My dad was really struggling within already, as he also meditates daily and practices feng shui, but he was really having a hard time with taming his ego, and he got progressively worse over the course of the last 2 years, and now I feel this might send him over the edge, as I've never seen him in this state of mind before.
Any and all help is much appreciated, we are really struggling now as a family, and we need guidance, and to gain a deeper understanding of the metaphysical side of why this happened, and why now exactly, to have a chance at closure and for me to help my dad. Please, if you can, help me. If this kind of thread goes against the rules, I'm terribly sorry, I didn't mean to, it's just that this was the only place that came to my mind where I might find help.
submitted by PalmPines34 to Psychic [link] [comments]


2020.09.26 08:59 PalmPines34 Urgent Astrology Help Needed! (Please read)

The best friend of my father passed away last night (I'm from Hungary GMT+1), and it was accompanied by strong synchronicity and left my father broken completely right now, it's 8:20 am as I am writing this.
I felt, and still feel a strong sense of spiritual importance permeating the whole affair, especially on an intuitive level, but also because of the high frequency synchronicities surrounding the timing of the whole thing.
I am a university student studying comparative linguistics and mythology, and I research ancient sacred traditions as a hobby, however I must admit that I'm familiar with just the fundamentals of astrology.
It completely disrupted family plans and life for all of us, as my dad and his partner were to go vacationing to greece for two weeks, by car, early this morning, but now, the whole thing is cancelled.
Could someone help me to see if yesterday, or today is a special astrological date/event maybe, either for me personally, or for my dad, or perhaps something that is a global, shared event.
My info: Birth date: 1998/04/03 Loc: Budapest, Hungary
My father's info: Birth date: 1970/06/25 Loc: Kiev, USSR
This happened exactly to the day, 3 month from his last birthday, if I'm counting right, but I didn't get much sleep. My dad was really struggling within already, as he also meditates daily and practices feng shui, but he was really having a hard time with taming his ego, and he got progressively worse over the course of the last 2 years, and now I feel this might send him over the edge, as I've never seen him in this state of mind before.
Any and all help is much appreciated, we are really struggling now as a family, and we need guidance, and to gain a deeper understanding of the metaphysical side of why this happened, and why now exactly, to have a chance at closure and for me to help my dad. Please, if you can, help me. If this kind of thread goes against the rules, I'm terribly sorry, I didn't mean to, it's just that this was the only place that came to my mind where I might find help.
submitted by PalmPines34 to AskAstrologers [link] [comments]


2020.09.26 07:53 youngbull316 My Presidential Theory in the form of the Early, Core, & Late system

Starting with the Silent Generation (I could possibly go further back in the near future):
This is part I, with Range #1, because this is going to be too long to do both ranges.
Range #1 (based on time of birth)
Silent Generation = b. 1929-1944 (specifically, March 4, 1929 - April 12, 1945, a.k.a. Classes of 1947-1963)

Early Silents = b. 1929-1932 (specifically, March 4, 1929 - March 4, 1933, a.k.a. Classes of 1947-1951)
Have some remaining GI traits, were all born during the Herbert Hoover administration, and were for the most part, born in the early 30's, during the Great Depression. They were some of the main "Great Depression" kids of the 1930's, along with the younger GI's. Were largely big children and/or adolesecents (though the term probably didn't exist back then) during World War II and were the first full group to not be old enough to fight in it. They would of come of age in the late 1940's and were old enough to fight in the Korean War. They are largely the children of the Lost and Greatest Generation, and the parents of the Truman, Eisenhower, and JFK-born Boomers, as well as the LBJ-born Xers, give or take.

Core Silents = b. 1933-1940 (specifically, March 4, 1933 - January 20, 1941, a.k.a. Classes of 1951-1959)
I will break this up to two groups: Core Silents I & Core Silents II

Core Silents I = b. 1933-1936 (specifically, March 4, 1933 - January 20, 1937, a.k.a. Classes of 1951-1955)
They are the core representatives of the Silent Generation with no sort of overlap from the GI Generation whatsoever. They were born in the mid 30's during the first term of Franklin D. Roosevelt. They spent their childhood mainly in the early 1940's during the peak of World War II, so they are the main "World War II kids", came of age in the early 1950's during the Korean War and possibly could have fought in the war (probably the youngest though). They are largely the children of the Lost and Greatest Generation, and the parents of the Eisenhower and JFK-born Boomers, as well as the LBJ and Nixon-born Xers, give or take.

Core Silents II = b. 1937-1940 (specifically, January 20, 1937 - January 20, 1941, a.k.a. Classes of 1955-1959)
The first cohort to be born at the start of the new date for the presidential inauguration: January 20, instead of March 4. They were born in the late 30's during the second term of Franklin D. Roosevelt. This group numerically fits in the core but possibly has the earliest Baby Boomer traits. They were mainly kids at the end of World War II, and the start of the prosperity of the baby boom in the late 1940's, lasting throughout the 1950's. They were probably the main young adults of the civil rights movements (though the whole group was diverse in age) and the leaders of the hippie movement that largely influenced the Truman-born Boomers. They are largely the children of the Greatest Generation, and the parents of the JFK-born Boomers, LBJ and Nixon-born Xers, give or take.

Late Silents = b. 1941-1944 (specifically, January 20, 1941 - April 12, 1945, a.k.a. Classes of 1959-1963)
They were born in the early 40's during the third & fourth term of Franklin D. Roosevelt until his unfortunate passing before Harry S. Truman succeeded him. This group has strong Baby Boomer traits/influence. All or almost all of the Beatles are in this cohort. They spent their main childhood in the late 1940's and early 1950's, and came of age during the civil rights movement of the early 1960's and the Cuban Missile Crisis. They were the main "60's generation" that is widely known to describe the 40's born Baby Boomers. They are largely the children of the Greatest Generation, and the parents of the LBJ and Nixon/Ford-born Xers, give or take.

Baby Boomers = b. 1945-1963 (specifically, April 12, 1945 - November 22, 1963, a.k.a. Classes of 1963-1982)

Early Boomers = b. 1945-1948 (specifically, April 12, 1945 - January 20, 1949, a.k.a. Classes of 1963-1967)
They were born in the mid-late 40's during the first term of Harry S. Truman, after Franklin D. Roosevelt passed away. This group has some strong Silent influence. They were the main "50's kids" and came of age at the time of JFK's and Malcolm X's assassination, the Civil Rights Movement, etc. They were a part of the soldiers of the Vietnam War, as they became of age to fight and got drafted to go to war. Three of US presidents came from this cohort and were all born the same year: 1946. They are largely the children of the Greatest Generation, and the parents of the Nixon/Ford and Carter-born Xers, as well as the Reagan-born Millennials, give or take.

Core Boomers = b. 1949-1961 (specifically, January 20, 1949 - January 20, 1961, a.k.a. Classes of 1967-1979)
This will break up in three groups: Core Boomers I, Core Boomers II, & Core Boomers III.

Core Boomers I = b. 1949-1952 (specifically, January 20, 1949 - January 20, 1953, a.k.a. Classes of 1967-1971)
They were born in the early 50's during the second term of Harry S. Truman. They spent the majority of their childhoods in the 1950's, so they are also the stereotypical "50's kid, 60's teen/young adult" Boomers. This group has little to no remaining influence from the Silent Generation. They also had to fight in the Vietnam War, just like their 40's born counterparts. They came of age during the Summer of Love '67, Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy's assassinations, the tumultuous year of 1968, the moon landing, Woodstock '69, Kent State '70, etc. They are largely the children of the Greatest Generation, as well as the Hoover-born Silents, and the parents of the Ford and Carter-born Xers, as well as the Reagan-born Millennials, give or take.

Core Boomers II = b. 1953-1956 (specifically, January 20, 1953 - January 20, 1957, a.k.a. Classes of 1971-1975)
They were born in the mid 50's during the first term of Dwight D. Eisenhower. This group is the absolute core of the Baby Boomers, with completely no Silent Generation or Generation X traits. They spent the majority of their childhood early 60's and teenage years in the early 70's. They came of age when the US election allowed 18-20 year-olds to vote from the 21+ voting law and during Watergate, followed by then President Richard Nixon's resignation. This group was the very youngest that were able to fight in the Vietnam before its official end in 1975. They are largely the children of the Greatest Generation, as well as the Hoover and FDR-born Silents, and the parents of the Carter-born Xers, as well as the Reagan and Bush Sr.-born Millennials, give or take.

Core Boomers III = b. 1957-1960 (specifically, January 20, 1957 - January 20, 1961, a.k.a. Classes of 1975-1979)
They were born in the late 50's during the second term of Dwight D. Eisenhower. This group possibly are the first that have any X traits. They are the last to have memory of the JFK assassination. They were the main "60's kid, disco, and 80's 'yuppies'" generation. They came of age during the birth of Apple and the Star Wars series, release of Atari (which was the beginning of the home video game evolution), the Jonestown massacre, etc. They are largely the children of the Greatest Generation, as well as the Hoover and FDR-born Silents, and the parents of the Reagan, Bush Sr., and Clinton-born Millennials, give or take.

Late Boomers = b. 1961-1963 (specifically, January 20, 1961 - November 22, 1963, a.k.a. Classes of 1979-1982)
They were born in the early 60's during John F. Kennedy administration before his assassination. This group is on the cusp of Gen X, but is way more Baby Boomer than Gen X. They were kids in the late 60's during the Summer of Love '67, the assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, the tumultuous year of 1968, the moon landing, Woodstock '69, Kent State '70, etc. They were teens in the late 70's during the rise of New Wave and the peak of Disco, before dying out around 1980. They were probably the very first video game teenagers since the Atari was released in 1977 when they were underclassmen in high school. They came of age during the rise of arcades, the Iran hostage crisis, the early 80's recession, 1980 election, death of John Lennon, inauguration and failed assassination of Ronald Reagan, etc. They are largely the children of the Hoover and FDR-born Silents, and the parents of the Reagan, Bush Sr., and Clinton-born Millennials, give or take.

Generation X = b. 1964-1980 (specifically, November 22, 1963 - January 20, 1981, a.k.a. Classes of 1982-1999)

Early Xers = b. 1964-1968 (specifically, November 22, 1963 - January 20, 1969, a.k.a. Classes of 1982-1987)
They were born in the mid-late 60's, after John F. Kennedy's assassination and during the Lyndon B. Johnson administration, at the peak of the Vietnam War. This group cusps with the Baby Boomers and is a lot more Gen X than Boomer. They are probably the first to not really remember the 60's decade, the peak cultural decade for the Boomers in every aspect (the 1970's was more quintessentially Baby Boomer in youth but childhood culture was Gen X-oriented). They were the main group of "70's kids" and the ones most nostalgic of their 70's childhood and 80's teenage years. Most of the 80's teen movies had actors in this cohort. They came of age during the early years of MTV, crack & AIDS epidemic, Iran-Contra affair, Challenger explosion, Cold War, etc. They are largely the children of the Hoover and FDR-born Silents, and the parents of the Bush Sr., Clinton-born Millennials, as well as the Bush Jr.-born Zoomers, give or take.

Core Xers = b. 1969-1976 (specifically January 20, 1969 - January 20, 1977, a.k.a. Classes of 1987-1995)
There are two cores: Core Xers I & Core Xers II.

Core Xers I = b. 1969-1974 (specifically, January 20, 1969 - August 9, 1974, a.k.a. Classes of 1987-1992)
They were mainly born in the early 70's during the Richard Nixon administration up until his resignation. This group has little to no remaining Boomer influence and are pretty solidly Gen X. Their main childhood was in the mid-late 70's and the early 80's, while having a nearly pure 80's adolescence. They were the first true video game generation as they grew up with the Atari as kids, played at arcades as tweens, and had the NES as teenagers. They were the main "Hair Metal, New Jack Swing, Grunge" teens of the mid-late 80's and very early 90's. They came of age during the tail end of the Cold War, fall of the Berlin War, collapse of the USSR, release of Nelson Mandela from prison and end of apartheid, beatings of Rodney King & LA riots, etc. They are largely children of the FDR-born Silents and the Truman-born Boomers, and the parents of the Clinton-born Millennials and Bush Jr.-born Zoomers, give or take.

Core Xers II = b. 1975-1976 (specifically, August 9, 1974 - January 20, 1977, a.k.a. Classes of 1992-1995)
They were born in the mid 70's during the Gerald Ford administration, after Nixon resigned. This group is the core representative of Generation X, similar to their Nixon-born counterparts. They have little to no Millennial traits, also very solidly Gen X. Their main childhood happened in the early Reagan era of the early 80's, and core teen years were in the early 90's, so they would have been the core Grunge teens. They came of age after the Cold War ended, during the WTC bombing, death of Kurt Cobain, etc. They are largely children of the FDR-born Silents and the Truman-born Boomers, and the parents of the Clinton-born Millennials and Bush Jr. Zoomers, give or take.

Late Xers = b. 1977-1980 (specifically, January 20, 1977 - January 20, 1981, a.k.a. Classes of 1995-1999)
They were born in the late 70's during the Jimmy Carter administration. This group cusps with Millennials, so they have major Millennial traits. They were the main "80's kids" and teenagers during the Grunge, flannel, Gangsta Rap, dark core 90's, and young adults in the late 90's/early 00's. They came of age during the OJ Simpson trials, launch of Windows 95, Tupac and Biggie assassinations, Princess Diana's death, Monica Lewinsky scandal, etc. They are largely the children of the Truman and Eisenhower-born Boomers, and the parents of the Bush Jr. and Obama-born Zoomers, give or take.

Millennials = b. 1981-2000 (specifically, January 20, 1981 - January 20, 2001, a.k.a. Classes of 1999-2019)

Early Millennials = b. 1981-1984 (specifically, January 20, 1981 - January 20, 1985, a.k.a. Classes 1999-2003)
They were born in the early 80's during the Ronald Reagan's first term. This group cusps with Gen X, so they have major X traits. They were the main late 80's & early 90's kids and teens of the late 90's. They never spent a day in high school without the internet (Windows 95) and were all in high school for Columbine & Y2K, some were even in high school during 9/11. They came of age during the Columbine shootings, Y2K, the new millennium (hence the term "Millennials"), 9/11, the start of the Iraq War, etc. They are largely the children of the Truman, Eisenhower, and JFK-born Boomers, and the parents of the Bush Jr. and Obama-born Zoomers, give or take.

Core Millennials = b. 1985-1996 (specifically, January 20, 1985 - January 20, 1997, a.k.a. Classes of 2003-2015)
There are three groups of Core Millennials: Core Millennials I, Core Millennials II, and Core Millennials III

Core Millennials I = b. 1985-1988 (specifically, January 20, 1985 - January 20, 1989, a.k.a. Classes of 2003-2007)
They were born in the mid-late 80's during Ronald Reagan's second term. This group has some leftover X traits, but too solidly Millennial to be on the cusp. They were the main group of "90's kids" that so embraced their childhoods in the 90's the most that they would brag about it online and helped form a lot of the 90's nostalgia from the late 00's to mid 10's before going mainstream. They were "Y2K era" early 00's and "MySpace era" core 00's teenagers who were the last to spend a good chunk of high school before social media blew up and the middle & high schoolers during 9/11. They came of age during the Iraq War, SARS pandemic, rise of social media, Hurricane Katrina, Pluto no longer labeled as a planet, etc. They are largely the children of the Truman, Eisenhower and JFK-born Boomers, and the parents of the Obama-born Zoomers, as well as the Trump-born Alpha, give or take.

Core Millennials II = b. 1989-1992 (specifically, January 20, 1989 - January 20, 1993, a.k.a. Classes of 2007-2011)
They were born in the early 90's during the George H.W. Bush administration. This group is the most quintessential Millennial cohort with absolutely no traits of neighboring generation. They were the younger "90's kids" that were a lot more gatekeepy with the "90's kid" label towards the younger 90's babies that didn't make the cutoff than their mid-late 80's born counterparts (even though they are more 90's kids than the early 90's borns). These were the peak emo teens of the mid-late 00's. They came of age during the Virginia Tech shooting, release of the iPhone, Great Recession, 2008 election, H1N1 pandemic, Iraq War, etc. They are largely the children of the Eisenhower and JFK-born Boomers, as well as the LBJ-born Xers, and the parents of the Obama-born Zoomers, as well as the Trump and future-born Alpha, give or take.

Core Millennials III = b. 1993-1996 (specifically, January 20, 1993 - January 20, 1997, a.k.a. Classes of 2011-2015)
They were born in the mid 90's during the first term of Bill Clinton. This group has some overlapping Z influence, but are still very strongly Millennial. They were the main early 2000's kids and were the last to remember any part of the 90's. They were the main scene and electropop teens of the early 2010's. They came of age during the Osama Bin Laden assassination, end of the Iraq War, Occupy Wall Street, 2012 election, Aurora & Sandy Hook shooting, 2012 apocalypse, smartphones going mainstream and fully accessible, peak of SJW movements, rise of ISIS & BLM, Ebola, etc. They are largely the children of the Eisenhower and JFK-born Boomers, as well as the LBJ and the Nixon/Ford Xers, and the parents of Generation Alpha, give or take.

Late Millennials = b. 1997-2000 (specifically, January 20, 1997 - January 20, 2001, a.k.a. Classes of 2015-2019)
They were born in the late 90's during the second term of Bill Clinton. This group cusps with Gen Z, and has some strong Z influence. They were the main "2000's kids" that don't remember the 90's at all and were preteens as the 2010's rolled around. They were the main core 2010's teens. They came of age during the legalization of gay marriage, backlash of BLM, rise of anti-SJW movements, 2016 election, Pulse & Parkland shooting, etc. They are largely the children of the Eisenhower and JFK-born Boomers, as well as the LBJ and the Nixon/Ford Xers, and the parents of Generation Alpha, give or take.

Generation Z = b. 2001-2017 (specifically, January 20, 2001 - January 20, 2017, a.k.a. Classes of 2019-2035)

Early Gen Z = b. 2001-2004 (specifically, January 20, 2001 - January 20, 2005, a.k.a. Classes of 2019-2023)
They were born in the early 00's during the first term of George W. Bush. This group cusps with Millennials and has some strong Millennial influence. They are the first to not be able to remember the early 00's (all Millennials have some memory of that era, even if it was super vague). They were the main late 2000's and early 2010's kids and the first group of kids totally removed from the 90's and 20th century (the oldest were technically conceived in the 20th century). They are all the first post-9/11 born generation (the oldest were alive before it, though). They are currently coming of age and the only major event so far is the coronavirus pandemic that shifted their school careers and lives forever, not just affecting them but people of all ages. They were largely the children of the LBJ, Nixon/Ford, and Carter-born Xers, as well as the Reagan-born Millennials, and the parents of Generation Alpha and beyond, give or take.

Core Gen Z = b. 2005-2012 (specifically, January 20, 2005 - January 20, 2013, a.k.a. Classes of 2023-2031)
There are two cores of Gen Z: Core Gen Z I & Core Gen Z II

Core Gen Z I = b. 2005-2008 (specifically, January 20, 2005 - January 20, 2009, a.k.a. Classes of 2023-2027)
They were born in the mid-late 00's during the second term of George W. Bush. This group is the first to really have ultimately no Millennial traits and are 100% Zoomer. They don't have any memory of the release of the iPhone, Great Recession, 2008 election, etc. They were the main 2010's kids, and are the last to have a 100%, full childhood experience prior to COVID-19, as they all turned 11 (where I end childhood at) in January 2020 and earlier, before the virus even came to the US (it was just in Wuhan, China at the time, so the US and almost the whole world was living in a pre-COVID environment), so they are the last true pre-COVID kids. They grew up on games like Minecraft, Roblox, etc., as well as being the first kids of Fortnite, despite their childhood being nearly over with at that point. They will come of age in the core of the 2020's but for now they are in their early teens as underclassmen in high school at best. They are largely the children of the LBJ, Nixon/Ford, and Carter-born Xers, as well as the Reagan-born Millennials, and the parents of Generation Alpha and beyond, give or take.

Core Gen Z II = b. 2009-2012 (specifically, January 20, 2009 - January 20, 2013, a.k.a. Classes of 2027-2031)
They were born in the early 10's during the first term of Barack Hussein Obama. This group is the last to have no remote Alpha traits and are 100% Zoomer. They grew up as kids in the late 2010's, and they were the last to spend a majority of their childhood pre-COVID19 but are the first to still witness childhood during it, though they are the older kids of it. They are the first core Fortnite kids, since they were all at peak childhood age as the game came out in 2017 and beyond. They don't have any memory of the Sandy Hook shooting, 2012 apocalypse but were born before it (the youngest weren't), a pre-ISIS world, etc. They are largely the children of the Carter-born Xers, as well as the Reagan and Bush Sr.-born Millennials, give or take.

Late Gen Z = b. 2013-2017 (specifically, January 20, 2013 - January 20, 2017, a.k.a. Classes of 2031-2035)
They were born in the mid 10's during the second term of Barack Hussein Obama. This group cusps with Gen Alpha, so they have major Alpha traits. They are growing up as kids currently throughout the early 2020's in a COVID-19 world. They are also core Fortnite kids but probably don't remember a world before it, neither do they remember a world before the legalization of gay marriage, the 2016 election, the Parkland shooting, etc. They might be the last to remember a pre-COVID19 world. They will all come of age a whole decade from now in the early 2030's. They are largely the children of the Carter-born Xers, as well as the Reagan and Bush Sr.-born Millennials, give or take.

Generation Alpha = b. 2017- most likely 2032 (specifically, January 20, 2017 - January 20, 2033, a.k.a. Classes of 2035-2051)

Early Alpha = b. 2017-2020 (specifically, January 20, 2017 - January 20, 2021, a.k.a. Classes of 2035-2039)
They were born in the late 10's and are still being born as of now during the first term of Donald J. Trump. Not much to say about them at all as the oldest just entered their childhood. They will not remember a pre-COVID world but most of them were born before it happened. They will be able to remember the aftermath and that is what makes them a new generation, as well as some other factors. They are largely the children of the Reagan, Bush Sr., and Clinton-born Boomers, give or take.

The Alpha kids born 2021+ are not even born yet and could possibly even be Biden babies instead of Trump babies 2.0.
So what do you think about this?
submitted by youngbull316 to generationology [link] [comments]


2020.09.24 07:16 skunk_box [WTB/WTT] TWICE UPDATED LIST, numismatics (base and precious) and paper money

Looking to get:
  1. 1939 BU Canada Parliament Dollar
  2. Festival of Great Britain George VI 1951 Crown in original box
  3. A British Crown with King George slaying the Dragon on it (Victoria and Edward preferred)
  4. 1902-1910 Any date British Edward VII Florin, any condition
  5. VF-XF Barber coin (dime, quarter, half), common date, uncleaned, good luster or good circulation cameo
  6. British Queen Victoria coins, any bust, condition, denomination (1/32 farthing up to the crown and anything and everything in between)
  7. 10s, 20s, 30s BU Wheat penny, no toning, red
  8. Z.A.R. South African coins, any denomination
  9. BU buffalo nickel 1913 (any type) or 1937 D/P
  10. Nicer seated coinage
  11. 1967 Centennial Canada Bunny Nickel
  12. 1967 Canada specimen set centennial in OGP, nicer toning preferred
  13. British hammered silver, preferably Queen Elizabeth the First
  14. British Cartwheel pennies/2p 1797 any condition, culls are fine
  15. Dutch East India company copper VOC duits, any yeacondition
  16. German Notgeld Westphalia coinage, any denomination/condition
  17. Clad British Commemorative Crowns
  18. British trade dollar
  19. Prussia 2/5 marks german states Freidric-Wilheim
  20. 1956 proof coins, US
  21. 1924/5/6 50 Kopeks and rouble USSR
  22. German states coinage (any and all)
  23. 1999 Canada Proof Quarters (any month, silver or clad)
  24. Gibraltar 2003 1 pound coin
  25. 1973 Greek 2 Drachmai Owl Design (or 1 drachma)
  26. Prussia German State 3 mark 1910
  27. German States victory 3 marks
  28. Napoleon French coins
  29. Coins with security edges, like this, this (second one from bottom), and/or these, examples include 1943 1/2 rupee and the 1993 5 dollars from hong kong
  30. 1898-1921 France 10 centimes, this
  31. 1922-1935 Italy 1 Lira, this
  32. 1974-87 France 10 Francs, this
  33. Bahamas 1 dollar banknote any condition
  34. Any version any year, BU or proof, Australian dragon 1 oz silver bars, solo dragon or double dragon
  35. 1921 Paderborn Notgeld set 50 pfennig to 2 mark, preferably with the original envelope and uncirculated, all four runs a-d
  36. Saxony State Issued Porcelan Notgeld, 1921, these and this, but gold gilded
  37. Guatemala 1/4 real, the tiny ones
  38. 1971 Mauritius 10 Rupees, this
  39. Greek Euro, owl design (any type)

Paper Money:

  1. Sawhorse 1$ (any year BESIDES 1917)
  2. Any denomination small size National Currency
  3. ANY fractional currency any condition all series
  4. Small size red seal 1$ United States Note 1928
  5. North Africa notes any denomination
  6. Hawaii notes any denomination
  7. Any series gold certificate
  8. 1914 FRN series, 5$ 20$ 50$ and 100$ in presentable condition (red and blue seals, 10$ in red needed as well)
  9. 1928 Any denomination number district FRN (Prefer 1928 Tate-Mellon)
  10. 1928 Any denomination letter district FRN
  11. 1934 Any denomination FRN (Prefer 1934 Julian-Morgenthau)
  12. 1934 Lime seal Any denomination FRN
  13. Any denomination small size FRBN
  14. 1988A, 1993 and 1995 1$ Web Notes (Prefer UNC and district L)
  15. 1934 1$ Funnyback (1934 series silver certs)
  16. Any denomination 1934 Silver Certificates Small Size
  17. 1928 United States Note 5$ Small Size Presentable
  18. 1923 1$ Large Size Red Seal
  19. 1899 2$ Silver Cert
  20. 1918/5 FRBN Any denomination besides 1$
  21. Woodchopper 5$ Bill (jackson)
  22. 5th Series Silver Cert 5$ Porthole

Details coins are fine as long as they aren't cleaned or polished, unless specified

Holed coins, big scratches, rim dings, post-jewelry, and anything similar are fine as long as they are confined, and not like polishing which covers the entire coin. Coins like this are acceptable.


Paypal cashapp venmo zelle and crypto
submitted by skunk_box to Coins4Sale [link] [comments]


2020.09.24 05:47 FrostFireFive Centurions #2 - Into the Fire

Centurions
Issue #2 - Into the Fire
Written By: FrostFireFive
Edited by: u/duelcard, u/DarkLordJurasus
Arc: Draft Day
“Oh come on guys! We just got here,” Morph said as he ran, dodging the metal ball flying at his face. It had only been one minute since he had appeared in that alleyway, his mind racing from where he was. One moment in his dingy apartment, the next standing with five strangers and definately far far from home.
“Oh sure you did,” Thunderball said as he yanked his ball and chain back. “You don’t dress like that if you’re not going out and stopping guys like us.”
“You know...that is a good point.” Morph said before elongating his legs and leaping up in the air.
The five that had beamed into that alleyway had all scattered on the outside of the bank. Morph was the first one to run, his shapeshifting abilities going into overdrive as he adjusted to the new world.
The rest soon quickly ran out as well. Mimic quickly steeled up as he charged at Bulldozer. The orange foe and him slammed together. As they began to tussle Mimic strained against Piledriver, the one downside of being a power mimic was that he wasn’t as strong as the originals. Pitor would have taken down a clown like this easily. As he pushed against the brute he noticed the Iron Man floating above watching them all.
“T.O.N.I,” Arno Stark said as he looked down at the skirmish between these strangers. “Start collecting information on wherever we are. Important events, people, businesses...and figure out exactly who was in that alley with us.”
“On it boss,” the AI responded. “Do you want to help them down below?”
“No, let’s see who wins first before taking any action.”
To the right of Mimic, near the bank steps, Wrecker swung his crowbar at Blink. The green jacketed and purple masked villain was baffled by her. Normally when dealing with resistance he could bash it away with his crowbar but every time he swung at Blink she’d appear just far away for him to wiff.
“Come on girl, quit dodging and actually fight…” Wrecker said before stumbling forward as Blink teleported behind him. Quickly she conjured an energy staffed and swept him off of his feet. Clarice Furigson didn’t have time for this shit. She clearly was far from home, and needed to get back. Xavier needed to die, and being here didn't achieve that goal any faster. She needed to figure out where here was and then kill the traitor: Jean Grey.
Marvel Girl meanwhile still stood in that alley way, dropping on the floor and hyperventilating. She still could feel the warm hum of the pink energy blade of blink. “Don’t panic, don’t panic, don’t panic,” she thought to herself as the chaos that faced her raged on. All she wanted to be was home, listening to David Cassidy and figure which go go boots went with her blue with purple swirl dress for her date that night.
“Hey! Marvel Girl!” Morph called out as his torso flexed around Thunderball’s ball and chain. “Little help here!”
She looked over the shape shifter as Thunderball had him pinned down. The ball and chain was coming back and forth so quickly that Morph was continuously playing defense. He needed an opening.
“What do you need me to do!” Marvel Girl called out as she slowly got up and dusted off her green dress and straightened out her pointed yellow mask. Figure this out first, panic later.
“Well which one are you, Madelyne Pryor from the recent reboot? Rachel from that horrible reboot? Or the classic Jean?”
“The professor said I’m not supposed to reveal my secret identity just like that.”
“Classic Jean then,” Morph thought before getting hit by Thunderball, tumbling to the ground. “Use your mind powers or something before I get my ass kicked! Or at least ruin my perfectly good looking face before a shoot.”
“But..I’ve never lifted something...that big before…”
“Will you two shut up!” Thunderball said as he swung his ball again. “I came here to rob a bank, not deal with you two chatting. Either fight or get out of the way.”
“Listen Mr...I’m sorry what was your name again?” Morph said as he dodged.
“It’s Thunderball, and the last name you’ll ever…”
“So I’m fighting against the Bond movie filmed twice?” Morph said his suit became a tuxedo and a slick full head of black hair appeared on his head. “Do you go introducing yourself as ‘Ball. Thunderball.’?”
“SHUT UP!” Thunderball cried out before swinging again. The ball was coming straight at Morph’s face. Morph closed his eyes expecting to be hit dead in his face. However, instead of sending him flying back the hit never came.
Marvel Girl strained as one hand was on the side of her temple and the other outreached as purple energy could be visible from her head. She had managed to hold the ball in place, but felt faint. There was a difference from the small training gear in the danger room to an actual wrecking ball.
“Please hurry…” she mumbled.
“On it!” Morph said before embiggening his fists and slamming them into Thunderball. “Reboot this!”
Thunderball went flying into the pavement, tumbling on the gravel before trying to get back up and collapsing.
“Hooray for teamwork,” Morph joked before noticing the weakened Marvel Girl. “Steady there,” he said before holding on to her and moving away from the chaos around them. Hopefully the others could take down the rest.

Mimic was losing ground to Bulldozer. The foe was tougher than he expected underneath the orange and metal armor. Normally he should have wiped the floor with him, using his combination of powers to beat this mook. Yet...his heart wasn’t in it. Cal Renkin didn’t know where he was or whether he could get back home.
“What’s a matter freak,” Bulldozer gritted through his teeth. “Feeling tired already from my power? Nothing can beat this suit, which means nothing can beat me.”
“Must be your first time in it,” Mimic said. “Because you suck at banter.”
“Don’t need to banter to wipe the floor with you,” Bulldozer said before throwing a punch into Mimic’s face.
The mutant staggered backwards, his vision blurry and unaware of the orange foe grabbing him and tossing him hard into the air. As he went airborne Mimic assumed he’d go up and then come quickly crashing down. However, he had forgotten about that Iron Man.
THUNK!
Mimic crashed into Arno as he was continuing to collect data into the world. Arno not being prepared for it was quickly knocked back to the ground himself with Mimic.
“What the hell was that for!” Arno’s cold robotic voice called out. He quickly raised his gauntlet at the unsteeled Mimic in anger. “T.O.N.I, damage report!”
“All systems are fine boss,” the AI responded. “And I think you should worry more about the figure behind you sir.”
Before Arno could turn around he was slammed hard into the ground by Bulldozer. It wasn’t Mimic he had to worry about, it was this clown.
Arno slowly got up and looked at Bulldozer. He recognized that he had basically strapped kinetic discharge machines to his hands, feet, chest, and head. Basically the more energy he took in, the stronger he got. But that also meant that you could over power the system with too much energy.
“Hey!” he said before looking at Mimic. “Do you have any other powers or is it just the metal skin?”
“I’ve got a few,” Mimic said as he got back up.
“If you got any blasts use it now!” Arno said before raising both arms up and firing a steady stream of energy at Bulldozer. He staggered back a bit before standing up again and slowly moving to Arno. If that fool didn’t have any surprises he would be roasting in the tin can coffin of his suit.
BZZZZT
A stream of red concussive force came out Mimic’s eyes and pushed Bulldozer into the repulsor blast of Iron Man. Bulldozer’s body jerked around and the equipment began smoking, the combined attack was working as Bulldozer finally slumped to the ground.
Mimic took a deep breath before rubbing his eyes. It had been forever since he used Scott’s powers, and he always forgot how itchy his eyes felt after unleashing an optic blast. As Mimic picked himself up he saw Bulldozer laying on the ground next to him and Iron Man.
“Thanks for the save Tony,” Mimic mumbled.
“I’m not Tony,” Arno said before getting up. The nanites that made up his face plate retreated as his clean shaven face came into view. “So your familiarity isn’t going to help you here. Tell me exactly why you brought me here, or I’ll start getting serious.” Arno raised his gauntlet at Mimic ready to blow a hole in his chest.
“He’s not the one that brought you here,” Blink said as she ported in. “He’s just as clueless as the rest of us.”
“And you know this why?” Arno said with a raised eyebrow.
“Because if he brought you here he would have known you’re not whoever this Tony Stark is.”
Arno lowered his arm and surveyed the damage. Sirens could be heard from the background as the police finally made their way to the bank. He could see that red head and shape shifter behind Blink. They seemed to be exhausted from taking out one of the other foes. Clearly they weren’t responsible either for bringing them all together. Before Arno could even say another word the five once again glowed purple and vanished yet again.

“So where are we this time?” Mimic asked as the five were teleported into a common area of a large loft. “And are we going to have to fight anyone.”
Blink already began forming an energy dagger and looked at Marvel Girl, ready to pounce. Before she could however a purple sphere appeared in the middle of the room. Soon a voice poured out of it.
“Centurions, I’m glad you were able to handle your first test,” the voice said. “I’m glad the...five of you were able to succeed.”
“That’s great and all, but who are you?” said the Morph as he turned into a wizard. “And why are we here.”
“A contest has begun,” the voice explained. “You are my champions and I prey it will be enough for the dangers ahead.”
“Great,” Mimic said. “Could you explain why us though, and what type of danger we face? Because right now I think you’re full of shit.”
“I am not Calvin. I know you grieve for Mary, but I need you to be focused.”
Mimic became silent at the mention of his wife’s name. Whoever this figure was, they knew more than he would have liked to admit. He would listen to what it had to say.
“When do we get to go home?” Marvel Girl asked. “I do have a date tonight.” She was nervous around the five in front of her and how...grand the scale of all of this was. She was just a cheerleader for her team for the most part. Trying to stop Thunderball had taken a lot out of her, and if she was going to do more of that to help a bunch of strangers that she did even know. Plus that pink skinned weirdo seemed to have it out for her. It was not a healthy environment.
“I’m afraid Ms. Gray...with the multiverse at stake...some of you may not return home.” the voice said.
The five looked around and wondered what exactly they had gotten themselves into.

A figure sat in a chair above the starry cosmos and looked at a chess board. He could see the pieces slowly appear. A changing fool, a resistance fighter with PTSD, a futurist with daddy issues, a grieving hero, and a girl. He chuckled a bit. The girl hadn’t been able to summon six like she was supposed to. Earth 913 was a surprising choice for an arena. It hadn’t been the site of multiversal incursions. It would provide an advantage he was looking forward to.
As he looked at several monitors he began making selections for his trained team. The Western Devil, Xavier’s Captain, a metal man from the USSR. War was coming, and he knew how to play the game.
“To me my Dreadnaughts,” the Grandmaster said with a smile.
NEXT: The Centurions settle into their new home, Marvel Girl and Blink clear the air, and the first Dreadnaught arrives!
submitted by FrostFireFive to MarvelsNCU [link] [comments]


2020.09.23 01:35 invisiblefaction2 How does Russia and the USA manage/utilize their stockpile of older munitions?

Since the end of the Cold War, both the USA and Russia had vast quantities of weaponry at their disposal. While assets like tanks can be kept in storage for decades without much issues, surplus munitions on the other hand can be dangerous with ammo dumps exploding every once in a while in the former USSR. But in Syria, there's been visual evidence suggesting that some of the bombs being dropped by the Russians dates all the way back to the 1970s. In many countries, older munitions aren't replaced frequently due to cost concerns. From that, how did/does Russia and the USA manage or make use of older munitions? Is there any inherent issues with using a .50 caliber bullet from WW2 versus a bomb built twenty years ago? What munitions can remain viable for the longest and the shortest?
submitted by invisiblefaction2 to WarCollege [link] [comments]


2020.09.22 07:10 PrimodeReguera [ITSL 2020-2021] Games of the week schedule


Week Date USA Player USSR Player
1 Sep/05/2020 Tim Furrow Michael Stryker
2 Sep/12/2020 Kris Wei Jordi Alexander
3 Sep/19/2020 Kaiyan Fan Marco de Santis
4 Sep/26/2020 Shezan Hirjee Ziemowit Pazderski
5 Oct/03/2020
6 Oct/10/2020 David Amidon Jason Leggett
7 Oct/17/2020 Jason Leggett Ryan Pindulic
8 Oct/24/2020 Anthony Russo Mathieu Latendresse
All games are on Saturday at 8am Pacific Time.
EDIT (09/25/2020): Jason Leggett vs Ryan Pindulic moved to October 17th. Week 8 match added.
submitted by PrimodeReguera to twilightstruggle [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 21:52 DesignerPiccolo HOI4 - Germany

Hi guys,
I´ve installed the game again after 2-3 years and played with germany (vs AI on normal). I´ve watched a tutorial to get up to date. But now I´m even doing worse then 3 years ago ... (I dont have the last 3 DLCs).

Basically I´m doing the following:

Poland is no big deal (early 1939), but when I´m doing "maginot line" (mid of 1939), I´m already at war with france and UK. I´m facing 2000 fighters and they have already more divisions on the front (~120) and I´m not making progress and a lot of losses.
What am I doing wrong?
submitted by DesignerPiccolo to hoi4 [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 22:27 not_a_falangist Persia AAR part 1: Dawn of a Red Afghanistan

Hi hoi4, I thought I would try my hand at writing an AAR. In this one, I will be trying to restore the Persian Empire under Afghan rule. It’s my first ever, so let me know of any questions, comments, or suggestions you have. Thanks for reading!
Sardar Shah Wali Khan, General of the Amry, looked outside. He had just been tasked with bringing the Afghan Army up to date, in case of possible Soviet invasion. The USSR has set up puppet Regimes in Tuva, Mongolia, and Sinkaing, and the ruling Barakzai Royal Family felt they would have no problem to the same here. In front of him stood the Royal Afghan Household Division, which by its self made up the entirety of the organized Afghan Army, the rest being tribal militas. If the Afghan government wanted to fend off a Soviet Invasion, that would have too change. He turned to a nearby subordinate, and demanded that the tribes train their militias, and await further instructions. How this would go with tribal leaders is unknown, and he expected pushback. Than General Khan went back inside, and began to muse about the future. His family. And what might happen if the king discovered what he knew.
The King, Mohammed Zahir Shah, was busily talking to the nations top scientists about the possibility of expanding the electronic and mechanical capabilities of the nation. He hoped that he could bring the nation up to state in prediction quality. Than a servant came to him, and explained things that seemed very boring, but very important. He talked about “diversification of industry Incase of a Soviet invasion, which was more likely due to the recent coup in East Turkestan.” The king signed off on the construction of a factory. But he had more important things to think about. Like her. He knew he had to find an excuse to see her again. Of course, if his reasons were discovered, he would be disgraced. So he sent an order to his advisor to conduct a “Tribal Census”. This would be two fold, he could find her, and reign in the power of tribal militias, who were already being challenged militarily by General Khan. After all, to bring about change in the world, he must bring about change in his own country first.
Ali knew what was coming. He was a loyal member of the Zahir Shah tribe. As he got up from midday prayer, a strongman from the chiefdom approached him. “I’m Saddam Baghdadi”. The man said.” “Pack your bags, and report to the village square.” He handed Ali a slip of paper and went off. He was being recruited. Apparently some General Khan wanted to expand the national defense. He knew he couldn’t fight it. So at 12:00, on the first day of 1636, he arrived at the center of the village. This was not how he thought his year wouldn’t go.
submitted by not_a_falangist to hoi4 [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 11:54 pog99 Ryan Faulk distorts Segregation/Jim Crow.

See the original article and the garbage it inspired.
If you were to find the about page of his blog, you would know that he defends the blog from promoting white supremacy by simply reporting the facts. A strict reading could put together that it doesn't mean that one couldn't defend or rationalize past systems of white supremacy. I've recently revisited and clarified the issues of his Slave trade article, and soon I plan on talking about multiple issues with his slavery article as well, so today I will do the same with this one.
The running theme of the piece is that disparities during Jim Crow either couldn't be explained specifically by segregation, or that disparities came larger after the 1960s thus segregation as a factor is ruled out. The problems are that -
  1. For each aspect that he measures, he doesn't tie it to a specific expert claim on how Segregation played a role in the disparity.
  2. He doesn't account for post-1960s factors that causes the persisting or larger disparity, and assumes post-1960s is a systematically neutral control.
  3. For certain disparities he compares, they are inappropriate and are not indicative of what he purports.
And for the record, no, he doesn't actually talk about voting or juror restriction by race.
The article-
We first get a rationalization of his analysis.
When I was younger, I would read world atlases. And sometimes I would come to an article, say an article on the country Colombia, and it would say that Colombia is a world leader in coffee production, then list off some other “cash crops”. Then it would go into the growing textiles sector, and mention that it has some problem with debt. Maybe it’s a leading producer of phosphates as well or something. And if you read all of this qualitative, subjective description, you would never realize that Colombia was poor. It’s not until you got to “per capita GDP” that you would discover that it was $3,000 per capita.
You could also have someone qualitatively describe a football game between Auburn and Alabama. And they could do highlights, and describe some of the big plays, and you wouldn’t know that Alabama completely steamrolled Auburn until you looked at the box score.
Or imagine if your son was “describing” qualitatively and subjectively how he was doing in his classes. As a parent you don’t care, you want to see the damn grades.
And so the effects of segregation on blacks. What does the data say? Because in school when segregation is taught, it’s the equivalent of describing a football game by just looking at the highlights and not the box score. It’s cat-lady storytime.
Well, there are a few big go-to topics that popped into my mind to try to quantify the effects of segregation on blacks: cops and courts, schools, income and lynching. So that’s what I go-to’d.

1. Incarceration rate
The incarceration rate for blacks relative to whites has increased at least since 1930, probably long before that. So in terms of blacks being targeted for being sent to prison, it looks like they were substantially less targeted compared to today.
So if the legal systems were unfair during segregation, they appear to be even more unfair today. Or perhaps they weren’t unfair during segregation, are unfair today, or perhaps the laws are different today in a way that disparately impacts blacks more than they did in the past.
There are all sorts of things we can speculate, but it’s not immediately or obviously apparent, from the data, that the legal system was particularly keen on incarcerating blacks compared to today.
So for those of you more keen on race and mass incarceration, you would know that this is particularly strong in Northern Urban regions rather than the South. A whole demographic transition occurred that accounted for it.
Not to mention he never actually looked for studies that purport to address biases during Jim Crow. What does he find through is roundabout ways?
2. Prison sentences
For prison sentences, the numbers have been remarkably stable. When you look at length of prison terms for blacks compared to whites after the FIRST release from prison, it’s very close.
The first release data is important because none of these are repeat offenders. Repeat offenders get more time, and blacks are more likely to be repeat offenders.
That said, based on the data below, blacks serve roughly ~15% longer prison terms for their first term. It could be because the crimes blacks commit within each category are, on average, more severe. It could be racial bias on the part of judges.
Or it could be that blacks have worse courtroom behavior, as when IQ is controlled for, the racial gap in prison sentences goes away.
But what you don’t see is blacks having longer prison sentences during segregation.
Black Multiple of White Median Time Served For ALL Releases in State and Federal Prisons
Now what if we looked at median prison time served just in the South, and back in 1937 – smack in the middle of “Jim Crow” – and included repeat offenders, of which black inmates are a higher proportion today? The result is not that much different from the entire US today:
Black Multiple of White Median Time Served For ALL Releases in 14 Southern States in State and Federal Prisons
Remember, the 1937 data is JUST from the South, supposedly the hot seat of bigotry, and includes repeat offenders.
Homicide data is an unweighted average of each category. In 1937 and 1952 they used Murder and Manslaughter, in 1964 they just had Homicide, and in 2009 they had Murder, Negligent Manslaughter and Non-Negligent Manslaughter.
In case you think I am cherry-picking the years to paint a particular narrative, these are literally just the years used in the Bureau of Justice report I am citing.
And so what we can see is that the black-white incarceration gap is wider today than it was in 1930. In addition, the racial gap in sentence length for first offenders does not appear to have changed at all. Even the data that INCLUDED repeat offenders just in the South in 1937 doesn’t differ that much from the first-time offender data nationally and later.
And so this makes the idea that the current US legal system was more biased against blacks during segregation than it is today SEEM false.
So this is a good example of a data point that doesn't correspond to a specific Civil Rights claim for Jim Crow relative to the post-1960s. Mass incarceration is usually shown as being a post 1960s phenomenon of bias as a particular, in connection to Blacks increasing presence in the North. His source supports it. On page 88.
The median time served for the total was 17 days. For blacks the median was 2 days longer, 19 days. Interestingly, there were larger differences between whites and blacks in time served in the North than in the South. The median time served in the North for whites was 18 days and for blacks a full week longer, 25 days. In the South the median was 17 days for blacks and 16 days for whites. Looking at time served by offense, these differences continue.
Typical civil rights claims are in regard the lack of Black Jurors deals with not simply length of prison time but biases towards choosing conviction by a white jury relative to a comparable white defendant, which this doesn't study.
Therefore, the proper way how to study this would be conviction rates in the same region overtime, such as the South, and compared between different types of juries and defendants. I lack data on this, but one form of bias I have found was application of the death Penalty for rape in the South from the 1930s to the 1960s was harsher not just for Black Criminals, but for Black criminals accused ofraping whites. In further detail, 13% of Black rapists in 11 southern states received the death penalty compared to 2% of whites.
Decreases in overall non-white (likely black) executions, by his source, decreased sharply after the 1960s. Overtime, rates of executions decreased even though crime increased into this period. Mind you, there were death penalty changes around this time.
This source, btw, contains a variety of measurements by race during Jim Crow into the present that could suggest bias outside of merely prison sentences.

3. Lynching
A related topic to this is lynching. From Richard M. Perloff, Professor of Communication at Cleveland State University:
“Approximately 4,742 individuals were lynched between 1882 and 1968; of the victims, 3,445 or 73 percent were Black.”
All lynchings were in response to a claimed offense, such as a rape or stealing cattle. Blacks were 72.65% of all recorded lynchings while being ~26.87% of the population of the South at the time.
The Black population of the Southern US 1880-1970 averages 26.87% at each decade. And so based on their population alone, if lynchings were race-neutral, and we knew nothing about race differences in violent crime going in, we would expect 26.87% of all lynchings to be of blacks. Blacks comprised 72.65% of all lynchings, giving them a representation 2.70 times their population.
However, according to wikipedia, most lynchings occurred between 1882 and 1920, and during that time period the average black population was 31.76% of the southern US population. Using this number, blacks as a percentage of lynchings are only 2.29 times their percentage of the population.
If we split the difference and just say that the black population of the south was 29.32% of the total population, then blacks as a percentage of lynchings was 2.48 times their percentage of the population.
By comparison, in 2010, blacks comprised 12.6% of the total US population, but were 38.13% of the population charged for violent crimes, giving them a representation 3.03 times their population.
And so by raw numbers the lynch mobs appear to be slightly less racially targeting than the current US legal system is. Here are those numbers put in a table:
So when I first read this I thought he was comparing lynchings to police shootings. The second time shows me how asinine he is. This is a good example of an inappropriate comparison.
Being charged with a crime isn't the same as a lynching, lynchings are categorized by the source he originally used for sentencing as an execution, one of the trends that decreased in rates for blacks and as established was higher in the South in ways suggestive of bias.
From his source-
Almost three-fourths (73 percent) of those lynched between 1890 and 1962 (the date of the last recorded lynching) were black, and in the same period, 54 percent of those executed were nonwhite. About 90 percent of those dying under State authority were executed for homicide. Only 41 percent of illegal lynchings were for homicide (Tables 2-1 and 2-2).
This is more or less consistent with my studies showing that, in the South, rape (the next largest portion of lynching offenses After Homicide) was disproportionately applied to black men with death.
Lynchings, as well decreased in accordance with campaigning against it as established in my Dwight Murphey post. This would be an example of civil rights interacting with oppression.

4. Income
This is where arguments regarding the negative effects of segregation start to have some backing in data. Looking at census data from 1948, we can see that black income as a proportion of white income went from around 44% in 1948 to about 80% in 2000. This looks like a massive effect from desegregation on it’s face:
📷
However, there is some interesting data from 1880. If you just look within regions, the racial gap is much less. At that time, black workers earned on median 37% of what white workers earned. However, if you just looked at the south, blacks earned 58% of what white workers earned. So just with that regional control we’re already almost half way to the current black-white income ratio.
Population and wage income by race and region in 1880
But the paper did something else – it looked at black labor income relative to whites, but just looked a rural southern whites and blacks, and only looked at labor income. And in that instance, black income was 89% of white income:
📷
And so when you look at the same region, and the same kind of work, and just compare the wages of workers, the black-white income gap in the rural South was only 11%, lower than it is today. And that difference could very plausibly be due to blacks having fewer skills on average in 1880.
I would be interested to see similar thin slices just looking at urban blacks in the south vs. urban whites in the south, and urban blacks in the north to urban whites in the north. I suspect that the more you held constant region and urban/rural divide, the smaller the racial gap would be.
Which is to say, that it seems like much of the black-white income gap could have been a function of blacks living in rural areas (which were poorer back then) and living in the south (which was poorer back then).
In addition, we can see that the narrowing of the black-white income gap roughly corresponds with blacks moving out of the south. This is not a 1:1 correlation, but it is does suggest that simply moving out of the south), which began in earnest around 1910, is part of the explanation for the narrowing of the black-white income gap:
📷
And in the north, where more of the blacks were slaves who had earned their freedom before 1865, black wages as a proportion of white wages were higher. In fact blacks in the north were wealthier than whites in the south for quite some time.
Moreover, the narrowing of the black-white income gap at the national level occurred almost entirely during segregation. So to say that the smaller amount of narrowing that occurred following desegregation was in fact a result of desegregation is something that sounds kinda plausible – there’s certainly a little story you can tell – but there’s very little data for it. The most you could say is that there was a brief acceleration of the narrowing of the black-white income gap immediately after 1965, but that could be a coincidence, and even if you want to say it was a result of the civil rights act, then the acceleration versus a continuation of the previous trend is still only going to be like 2%.
Now as for why the black-white income gap narrowed from 1948 (at least) to 2000, that’s another topic. I suspect much of it has to do with the economic rise of the south and the migration of blacks away from the rural economy. Also this higher income may not have corresponded with a rise in living standards relative to whites since the cost of living may have increased, but that’s more speculative. But desegregation doesn’t appear to have any relevance to it.
So even the narrowing of the black-white income gap, long touted as prime evidence that segregation was previously suppressing black wages, the evidence is not so clear on that.
So, he decreased the gap however in a way that was not applied to the modern gap, therefore makes his comparison null.
He spends most of this section explaining factors pertaining to geography and the like explaining the gap, even though it's existence is tied to both slavery and the economic and educational limitations of the South for Blacks. This can be seen in the lack of second generation benefits of white migrants relative to black migrants, those born in the North being positively selected for those returning to the South, and the steeper reduction in poverty among southern Blacks due to migrants that returned to the South.
Likewise, despite his claims that Northern Blacks being richer than Southern Whites, he doesn't produce a chart or study showing that.
5. Wealth and Employment
Two more things to consider is that up until the 1950’s blacks had employment rates similar to that of whites. And the unemployment rate in blacks grew much more after 1965:
📷
And in terms of wealth, black wealth as a proportion of white wealth has remained stagnant since 1963:
Moreover, I would say that the absolute disparity is more important than the black-white ratio. Because lets say you have $10 and Bob has $100. That’s a $90 gap. Depending on your job, that’s a day’s wage, or half a day’s wage. Now if you have $100 and Bob has $900, now you’re looking at multiple days’ wage. And so on and so on. So even though the relation is the same, the practical importance of the gap is growing. Also just the total dollar amount difference is increasing. And these are all in “2013 dollars”, which adjusts for inflation.
And so when people say that the relative economic situation of blacks has improved relative to whites since segregation, they’re looking at one thing: nominal income at the national level. They’re not looking at employment, at wealth, or how much, if at all, the income gap has narrowed when controlling for what region of the country we’re looking at, or if it’s urban or rural.
While this is worth pointing out, it fails to account for complex factors of the great migration. While gains were present, unemployment increased due to urban living and relatively higher demands in skill compared to the South. This can be seen by actually referencing the study he pulls the chart from, where changes in unemployment occur earlier and become starker outside of the South.
What is also interesting his how an earlier study done by one of the researchers of the 1999 study he cites notes how human capital can't explain as much of the gap in the North as it can in the South.
6. Schools
Another argument that segregation depressed black economic success is their lower school funding. On average, from 1890 to 1950, the average of how much each state spent on black schools as a proportion of what they spent on white schools was 56.96%. So they had less funding.
But funding for what? For “better teachers”? What’s a “better teacher”? What has been found in the US is that increased real spending on schools has not increased overall performance since the 1970s, and more importantly voucher studies have shown that the school an individual goes to has no real impact on either GPA, standardized test scores or future college attendance.
So the fact that additional funding didn’t matter in 1970 is one thing. But did it matter from 1870 to 1954?
Well, we don’t have regular standardized tests from that time period, but we do have a nationally representative IQ test done in 1917 for all US army conscripts for World War 1. In it blacks scored a median of 83 compared to the white score that was set to 100. Today the black median is still at 85. Okay, two points. And my guess is they were hollow for “g” anyway.
Certainly there were journalists at the time who did “investigative journalism” and wrote anecdotal reports of how bad the black schools were. Michael Moore does “investigative journalism” today too about how great the Cuban healthcare system is. Walter Duranty visited the USSR in the 1930s and came back writing glowing reviews of the benevolent, if firm, policies of Stalin.
Maybe they were telling the truth, maybe they were making things up, who knows.
Black schools were probably worse But the question is how much worse really? And for most people, did it even matter? Most of what people learn in school they forget anyway, so aside from literacy and basic math, the practical importance of school would be minimal for most people at that time.
And the culture of school credentials as a signal to employers hadn’t developed yet, so at the time any “educational disadvantages” blacks had, whatever they were and if any, would not matter in terms of credential-signaling because that hadn’t developed yet, and in terms of knowledge beyond basic literacy and math – that all gets forgotten anyway.
So....lets review.
  1. He could've mentioned the Coleman Report but didn't. This is a pretty major study in this particular field of social science, so for Faulk to miss something crucial to grounding his point only demonstrates his lack of familiarity with the material.
  2. I'm going to to assume, since the link is dead, that the studies referenced in that link doesn't account for how money is spent.
  3. His study cites work from a cosumer behavior course, not actual studies on schools.
  4. A recent study shows that for Jim Crow, school quality accounts for the majority of the wage gap for the era.
  5. Actual tracking of changes in school quality supports the conclusion.
  6. Previous data given regarding the Great Migration would indicate that education and a market to use it made generational different for blacks, even considering selection.
7. Countrymen?
This section is a bit of a digression. In a broader sense, blacks weren’t seen as legitimate countrymen to some extent for some time in the region. And so since the blacks were viewed as “foreigners” to southern whites, who to some extent viewed northern whites as foreigners as well, they didn’t think they owed the blacks equal school funding any more than they owed people from Peru or Romania or China equal school funding.
I.e. the black-white gap in school funding meant as much to them as the american-chinese gap in school funding, as both the Chinese and the blacks were foreign to the southern whites.
Now you can have whatever opinion you want about it, and say that blacks were rightful countrymen of southern whites, and really pound your fists in self-righteous certainty about it because you “know it to be true”. That’s certainly your viewpoint.
But understand that it is just your viewpoint, and when you realize that the southern whites viewed blacks the way we look at illegal immigrants today, and that the times during which either repatriation of blacks to Africa or creating a separate black country out of land in the US were serious proposals were still in living memory at the time.
Today blacks have been part of the US for so long that such proposals probably seem bizarre to you. And they would bizarre and cruel if implemented today. But also remember that the US had to impose military governments in the south in order to pass the 14th amendment that gave the blacks citizenship. And Oregon, New Jersey and Ohio renounced their ratification of the 14th amendment after the fact in protest of this action.
Obviously is was a symbolic gesture, but it showed that opposition to the way the 14th amendment was passed wasn’t considered some kooky fringe idea at the time. Of course it is now because if you bring up the use of military governments in passing the 14th amendment – well, “only racists talk about that”, so it just gets dismissed.
But yes, understand that the 14th amendment was seen like granting “amnesty” to the illegals is today – it would be creating an alternative method of granting citizenship for a specific group of non-citizens in the US today.
(And the fact that more whites supported granting citizenship to the black slaves at the time than supporting granting amnesty to illegals today is support for a theory I have about whites in the past being more “neurologically left-wing” even if they would be considered today to hold “far-right” positions by today’s standards.)
  1. Despite whatever perceptions American whites had about Americans blacks, it doesn't change the facts were that blacks were not comparable to the Chinese at the time. The cultural gaps and their economic history on a racial basis doesn't justify it.
  2. The basis of historical relativism in this case was seeming argued further in his MLK video, now deleted. That is, as argued by others before, whites didn't have to pay taxes for Black schools. This causes obvious problems as the average black had only limited wealth to tax in large part due to limited skills.
Faulk's self prophesied Conclusion-
So, what do we learn from his conclusions? He bizarrely begins with a tangent on the Zimmerman and Wilson trials and the correlated of media knowledge.
Some excerpts.
The jurors certainly knew more facts about each case than the general public did. Moreover, whites are more likely to believe Zimmerman and Wilson were justified, and whites do better on tests of current events knowledge. In addition, males, who do better on current events knowledge tests than females, also were more satisfied with the Zimmerman verdict than women, and women do worse on current events knowledge tests. Also, people with higher education levels approved the verdict as well.
Thus, all three factors that correlate with general political and current events knowledge (being white, being male and having lots of time in school) also correlate with approving the Zimmerman trial verdict. And the people who had the MOST knowledge – the jurors – unanimously found Zimmerman not guilty.
If you go by the literature in news media talking about “institutional racism” and “white privilege”, it’s not immediately obvious that the aggregate of all media is any less obsessed with the plight of the coloreds than they were in 1964. Maybe they were, but I have no way to really tell.
Do you see it? Do you see that lack of any real transition? Maybe some further comment can help.
But lets say Derrick Wilson killed “the gentle giant” in 1961. There was no internet in 1961, what you knew about the events was what a few major news outlets chose to report. As it happens, a jury also found J.W. Milam and Roy Bryant not guilty of murder in their killing of Emmett Till. And what do you know about that event? Do the facts you know of the Emmett Till verdict seem to paint a one-sided story to where it is unbelievable, yes, unbelievable that a jury would find Bryant and Milam not guilty?
Once again we have a comparison that isn't proper. The modern day examples leaves no ambiguity as to who killed who, it was a matter of whether the killing was justified or not.
The Emmett Till situation was vastly different, since the matter of whether or not Till was killed, whether or not Milam and Bryant were guilty, or exactly what happened between Till and Bryant in the store. Her own account only goes as far as to say that she was grabbed by the waist, while press releases by the defense/police was explicitly more violent. Both stories differ from her original account to her lawyers. Even the officer who initially believed that the body belonged to Till changed his mind when the town's reputation began to be tarnished.
Furthermore, even if we are to treat the Till case like the modern day examples, it only shows the hairiness of the case itself. Despite the defense being that Till is not confirmed dead, and that the brothers were innocent of murder, part of their defense regarding Till's actions and the release of Louis Till's rape record by politicians shows a blatant message. That even if the brothers killed Till, it was justified despite nonetheless being illegal.
Anyone, however, can read the various sources that talks about the issue at length. Personally I have Devery Anderson's most recent book.
Because we all know that the courts in the South were incredibly unfair to the blacks? Except there’s no real data to support that at the time,
In regards to death penalties, legal and illegal, for interracial rape, we do. This is supported, along with the data, In regards to changing testimonies in the case of Till, from the police, we do. From the fact that shortly afterward another white on black murder with a white witness (and multiple black ones) claiming otherwise. Said white was not only a friend of the defendants of the Till case, but was defended by the same officer who doubted the corpse's identity.
Point is that an entire survey of the south as a premise of bias is unnecessary (though supportive) of bias. The specific town where the crime took place has plenty of evidence of bias during the trial stemming from community values.
and victim surveys from modern times correspond with the police arrest rates, and police are more likely to kill a white person in any given arrest situation, are more likely to shoot blacks in simulations, and the black percentage of killing cops is higher than their percentage of being killed by cops. And in fact the black incarceration rate relative to whites is HIGHER than it was during segregation.
Irrelevant to the context of Till, a circumstance so legally unique from the above examples it shows Faulk's ignorance. The only connection is the matter of white credibility in modern settings verses in the context of a particular case.
As shown in previous articles, modern “institutional racism” in terms of police and court bias, callbacksand educational opportunities are very easily revealed to be phantasms – or at the very least the issue of whether or not they exist is much more complex than the basic statistics you hear on tumblr and huffpo posts would suggest.
Both articles are shitty, see United Left on the school vouchers argument.
Recent studies have shown that residential racial segregation has increased in the United States. This is an improvement over older studies which simply looked at cities and the percentage of each race in the cities. These newer methods actually look at the likelihood of you having a neighbor of a different race, and find that racial segregation is increasing.
So it's basically comparing two different types of "segregation", the conventional method comparing pre-1960s trends nonetheless decreasing.
We already know that schools are more segregated than they were during the late 1960s. Now this is a profound thing; you’ve been to school. You had first hand experience with how racially segregated they were. THAT was close to what it was like during Jim Crow that we hear so many stories about. So… how segregated did it seem?
Again, misleading headline.
In other places on this site, Sean and I make arguments about how currently, blacks and hispanics are not getting a raw deal in employment, courts or education. But what surprised me was just how much, looking into the past, the old days seem so similar to today in terms of the lot of blacks compared to whites.
They are drawn parallel. The past is not far away, it’s right here. 60 years ago was yesterday.
Only your superficial understanding of the 1960s, or any decade before.
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2020.09.19 03:46 Teethandflowers Kramer convinces Jerry to be a “celebrity spokesman” for he & Newman’s new pyramid scheme, MoscowMints. Elaine dates a man who shares the same morning routine. George is accused of being a Soviet spy, after asking the Yankees organist to play the USSR anthem to impress a girl he met through the MLM.

(George is sitting with Jerry, in Jerry’s apartment)
George: They think I’m a Soviet spy Jerry, a Soviet spy!
Jerry: I mean, this can’t be new territory for you. Didn’t you once pretend to be a communist to get women to sleep with you?
George: Hey! There’s a difference. I’m happy to embellish my political leanings when something benefits me. Steinbrenner thinks I’m trying to reignite the Cold War!
(Elaine is downstairs, Jerry buzzes her up)
Jerry: So what? Just tell him it was an accident, that you wanted to impress Svetlana by playing the Russian anthem and you got the wrong sheet music.
George: There’s the best part. All of it was for nothing! She dumped me!
Jerry: Dumped you? You played the USSR’s national anthem at an American baseball game, isn’t that the highest form of love?
(Elaine enters)
George: I was so caught up in panicking about them thinking I was a Soviet spy, she thought it was an affront to her heritage.
Elaine: Wow, they really hold on to the nostalgia over there, don’t they?
(Jerry and George screw up their faces)
Jerry: Whoa, I buzzed you up, not that smell.
Elaine: Ahhh, it’s Rob! I tried getting up earlier so I could beat him to the bathroom. He had the same idea, he beat me.
(Kramer enters)
Elaine: (continues) I couldn’t shower, couldn’t brush my teeth or else I’d be late for work.
Jerry: You gotta do something about that breath.
Elaine: Hey Kramer, give me some of those Moscow Mints.
Kramer: (makes a ‘Kramer face’, shaking his head) Uhuhuhuh
Jerry: What happened with Moscow Mints?
Kramer: There may be a small chance it was a money laundering operation orchestrated by the Russian government.
Jerry: What? I’m the spokesman! Get me off!
George: Kramer, you could be arrested for treason!
Elaine: Well, so could you, Comrade...
George: That’s not funny, Elaine.
Jerry: (panicked) They could throw us in jail, throw the book, keep us in a gulag! (grabs Kramer by the shirt which causes him to lose balance)
George: Oh my god, my father is in the pyramid scheme. I got him in, he’s never going to forgive me.
Kramer: Calm down everyone! They already have a fall guy. Turns out my business partner was in on it the whole time!
Elaine: (to Kramer) Newman?
Kramer: (comically falls back) Baby, spray some air freshener with that breath.
Jerry: What about Newman? He was in it from the start?
Kramer: Turns out he was creating secret channels to mail packages over to Putin to make a little cash on the side. Cash he owes me!
George, Elaine & Jerry: Putin?!
Kramer: That’s right. In fact, your girlfriend used those channels to get Newman out of the country, extradited to Russia. Turns out they had a little bit of a thing going on, he was doing her work on the mainland.
George: Wait, Svetlana was cheating on me? With Newman?
Elaine: Hey George, bigger picture.
Jerry: If Svetlana and Newman are in Russia, won’t they need a fall guy?
(knock on the door)
Man: (other side of the door) Is George Costanza in there? This is the FBI.
(Seinfeld slap bass plays)
(Post credits)
(Shot is a man waiting outside a bathroom, only see the back of a bald head, Svetlana enters)
Svetlana: Gaspadin prezident! What are you waiting on?
(Newman can be heard singing in the shower)
“Putin”: (crude Russian accent, voiced by Larry David) This man infuriates me. We have the same bathroom schedule!
(Newman pokes his head out of the door)
Newman: Sorry Vlad, hope you’re not waiting on hot water, because there’s nyet left (chuckles)
“Putin”: (angry, Russian Jerry imitation) Newman!
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2020.09.18 13:40 TessaBissolli Deconstructing the mythology episodes. Part 1: Kate's memories until early 1990 (First part of Requiem)

In this series, we will examine the mythology episodes, in light of what we can believe or not, what we find confirmation of, and what is demolished by applying a bit of critical thinking.
When we get to these episodes, it is extremely important to keep in mind the concept of point of view (POV). What does a character know, and when did they learn it. The easiest way to confuse the audience is to play with the POV, so they assume that just because they or another character know something, all the other characters would too.
We have had three kinds of mythology episodes: memories, hallucinations and tales.
The memories are Kate's in Requiem; Ilya's in Orion RS, forced by Skovic; and two kinds of memories remembered by Liz: the ones in 2.10, aided/forced by Dr. Orchard, and her unaided memories in 1.09, 1.17 and 2.22 of the fire, as well as 3.02 (burying a can with Katarina) and the more dubious one of 3.03 (Katarina writing in her diary).
Just as I did on the previous series, in this series I will try to analyze the apparent narrative of the mythology episodes to see where it falls apart and where is holds true. While I am trying to stay within one episode, I am also aiming for a timeline understanding and how they all work with each other, so there will be some jumping back and forth, and references to the previous series and other episodes, especially when they reference mythology.

Let us take Requiem, accepted as being Kate's memories, and thus confirmed. All this means is that Requiem the way she remembers things. Most of it can be taken as being real and true: things happened as Kate remembered, but with any memory, it can be faulty, as Red observed, memories are not tapes, played back each time.
For example, we have in Requiem two calls made by Katarina to Kate in the motel.
We do not know if this is how Katarina looked when she made the calls to Kate.
We can trust Kate was told those things, as that is HER memory of the events. But we cannot trust the images we are shown of Katarina. Where she was, what she looked like, etc., because Kate does not KNOW these things.
This is what Kate knows. She got calls from Katarina.
It might well be where Katarina was, but until we are shown the same images by someone who saw the scene being with Katarina at the time, it remains Kate's imagining what Katarina looked like, and where she was.
I accept all of Requiem's scenes as the way Kate remembers things, with the exceptions of those phone calls from Katarina.
A couple of items remain questionable, but we have had confirmation of most items in there: her going as a nanny, Katarina arriving back after a trip, three months later, the scene where Katarina kills the Soviet agent, and Kate cleans it up, finding Katarina in the woods, the unused scene with young Kirk when he says goodbye to Masha, and then the abduction. What she remembers after the fire, and culminating in the moments before 1.01 starts, in September of 2013.
The two items that jar were that in Kate's memories, Katarina calls Constantin "Alexander" twice. It was my friend u/jen5225 who realized what this might mean.
Because we know he did not take the name Alexander Kirk until after the fall of the USSR:
Alexander Kirk is the alias of an oligarch who made a fortune after the fall of the Soviet Union buying mining operations for pennies on the dollar.
It makes sense that Constantin found himself in a difficult situation after Katarina was deemed a traitor. The husband of a traitor would have got some nasty encounters with people looking for her: the cabal, the KGB and for a while, "the Americans" or the CIA. A change of name was just necessary. I am surprised he did not change his face too. Or maybe he did.
We know he began to have problems with the Kremlin in 2002.
This might have been because they realized who he was, for when Tom obtains his dossier from Russian intelligence, they know Alexander Kirk is Constantin Rostov, as they have a DNA paternity test showing him to be the father of likely Masha:
TOM: This, um, SVR report, when I talked to you earlier, I hadn't finished reading it.... It's about you. And your father.
So, likely, his problems derive from being found out as Constantin Rostov. At any rate, by 2016, when he enters the scene, having seen Liz on the run with Red, the Russians know who he really is, because of that paternity test.
The writer said using the name Alexander was a "continuity error", but was it? Was recording the lines again with the correct name too difficult? I have my doubts about it. Possible it was, but I am not convinced. too blatant, especially when earlier in the season he had already been called Constantin by Red.
https://preview.redd.it/178rxw9rovn51.png?width=757&format=png&auto=webp&s=4dba719c031cc7f7783979cf293a1c30d4dc7987
Then Red says:
People think memory - works like a video recorder. The mind records events and then, on cue, plays back an exact replica. In truth, memories are reconstructed more like putting together an ever-changing jigsaw puzzle than replaying a video.
It is possible that Kate remembers Katarina saying Alexander, because that is how she had been hearing about him?:
You don't understand, Kate. I know where they are, and so does Alexander Kirk.
or maybe as u/jen5225 suggests, she had been in contact with him.
So, not everything will be as it seems, as Kate was told half the story, as we will see. but those are her recollection of the events.
Kathryn Nemec was hired as a nanny, with a curriculum vitae that was a fake, for we know from Aram's researching her, she did not go to Northwestern for medicine, or had a Masters in Child Development, at least not under that name. She did not work abroad for diplomatic families, which leave traces when vetted for security, particularly during the Cold War.
Kathryn Nemec. Your references are outstanding. Fluent in Italian, French, German, and Russian. Most of your charges appear to have been in various diplomatic corps. ...You attended medical school at Northwestern, yet you decided not to continue. ... thus, a Master's degree in Child Development.
https://preview.redd.it/tbivlo5lnvn51.png?width=1031&format=png&auto=webp&s=72199603dda49f8df14c25d59f873c78a861e3f4
The facts, as digged up by Aram, are that she worked for an exclusive domestic agency and lived at a few addresses in the Midwest in her 30s. There is even no trace of her working in Canada for the Rostovs.
she [Nemec] disappeared in 1991, just dropped off the grid. Lived at a few addresses in the Midwest in her 30s. Worked at an exclusive domestic staffing agency, but then one day she's just gone. - And there is no more record.
This means that whoever hired her, in books, she was working somewhere in the Midwest. Her sister is living in Chicago in 1991, and then in Wisconsin. Kate's phone exchange is in Chicago, and her fake license has her being born in Chicago.
3 months after hiring Kate, Katarina arrives back from a trip
We see Kate intervene in a fight Katarina is having with a Russian man, sliding a knife to Katarina, which allows Katarina to kill the man.
https://preview.redd.it/srmuozcz0wn51.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=5328ae0a699b21ca27178c19449e09b266524b1d
Kate then suggest she would clean up the scene and Katarina would take a shower. In this scene, Katarina is not really seen as being that good at hand to hand combat, even if she is not shy violet.
Kate tells Katarina she knows she is KGB, which makes no sense, as the man killed was KGB. Agents generally kill agents from the other side, which leads me to believe that Kate already knew Katarina was supposed to be KGB and was letting her know it was fine with her. She demonstrates her knowledge of crime scene cleaning and cadaver disposal.
So, whoever sent her to Katarina, it seems Katarina knew or suspected who it was, and accepted a strange nanny with a love for cadavers and what she realized was a fake CV (when she asked how many children had she raised), because who was sending her or who she suspected was.
I cannot imagine a mother taking a nanny that loves cadavers and babies, and who had lied in her CV (make the tally yourself: a pre-medical degree (4/5 years), a few years of medical school (less than 4 ), a Masters degree (1.5 to 2), and then raising at least two sets of siblings for five or six years each set. 19 years for a bare minimum.)
https://preview.redd.it/3hv7xvvwsvn51.png?width=1916&format=png&auto=webp&s=bf136a8c3e961bf7bccfccf9509542bf2e70de94
Katarina asking Kate out of the blue, when she could not prepare, how many children had she raised, was a clue to me Katarina knew this whole CV was a bunch of lies, yet, she still hires and trusts Kate.
In Requiem we see a fake ID with a date of birth of 1953. This tallies, more or less with her being 6/9 in 1962 in the scene of her mother funeral, and puts her turning 30 in 1983/85. While she is supposedly hired by Katarina circa 1987, give or take a year, when Liz is about a year old.
Kate fake ID.
Kate believe it was Red who had hired her.
to keep Elizabeth safe, just like you asked me to all those years ago, when you first put her in my arms as a baby girl.
Red does not correct her that he only hired her in 1997, when Liz was being raised by Sam. So, either Red is letting her believe something which is not true, or Red is accepting that he somehow had a hand in her becoming Liz's nanny. But that knowledge came AFTER he had hired her, because she told Red in 1997:
KATE: Work for you? I don't know you.
We have a known case of Red hiring someone to look over Liz anonymously: an operative from the Major, Tom Keen.
https://preview.redd.it/15vrq0zm2wn51.png?width=917&format=png&auto=webp&s=17197832a5671566fc11cdd0f15d846fab55c71d
THE MAJOR TO TOM: The assignment's deep cover. No timeline, no price tag. This may seem like a cake walk, but it's the kind of assignment that makes me nervous. Our contractor has deep pockets. Demands the best, insists on anonymity.
the two hirings of Kathryn Nemec AKA Kate Kaplan
Kate believed that she had been working for Red for 30 years (1986/87), about the time she went to work for Katarina as a nanny with a fake curriculum vitae and a knowledge of cleaning a crime scene.
KATE TO AGENT GALE: Raymond thinks he out maneuvered me today, but he underestimated my commitment. I've been his cleaner, keeper, and confessor for 30 years.
Uncontested by Red, Kate said that Red had been involved in putting Liz in her care as a baby (Which might be literal or figurative, as in hiring her like he did Tom Keen, anonymously, to keep an eye on Liz).
But what she tells Red undisputed is that he hired twenty years prior. A scene we saw in Requiem, after Annie had been killed, and Kate is working for bail bondsman Little Nikos, circa 1996/97, when he sends Sam to talk to Kate, and then Kate and Red meet.
KATE: Work for you? I don't know you.
RED: I'm not as unknown as you might like to believe, Ms. Nemec.
Red sends Sam to fetch Kate, to offer her a job as his cleaner circa 1997
and then this:
When you hired me, you told me to choose Elizabeth over you. And so I tried to help her disappear to a safe place with her newborn daughter. And for that, you put me down like a mad dog. For the last two decades of my life, you had me convinced I was helping keep Elizabeth safe.
This is an interesting fact, and has become a clue for some fan theories in which Red is Katarina, after a surgery that left her an identical copy, down to voice and height to RR.
Yet, consider:
MEANS I can venture that Red hired Kate anonymously when Liz was a baby, to keep an eye on her, and eventually told Kate it had been him, and since she was cleaning bodies for Katarina, sent by Red, she was technically being a cleaner for him since then.
https://preview.redd.it/bsz95flxlvn51.png?width=1902&format=png&auto=webp&s=4b1773684b2f631cf6120c2ef34420779fc705a1
Kate then comes across Katarina and a man in a car, when Liz is about three years old, which places this scene in 1989. Because if Liz was born in 1985, but she was still four years old at the time of the fire, in December of 1990, then Liz was born in late December 1985.
https://preview.redd.it/6ku1xmkb0wn51.png?width=1613&format=png&auto=webp&s=addc831fede881421f238d40a4614dc6e845dbbd
Kate advices Katarina to break up with this man, a man she calls The American. And considering that she tells Liz that Katarina did not walk away from Raymond until it was too late and Raymond had taken Liz, believing her to be his, this man in the car must be Raymond Reddington. The man she will later blame for setting a set of events in motion which took what she loved from her, in that Katarina killed herself, at least in her view.
https://preview.redd.it/50nn1ox81wn51.png?width=1248&format=png&auto=webp&s=6db29a72349f80fc5517a6a5fe6f2227264cd412
From here, we jump to Liz's earliest memories of her mother, which come in 4.02 and 4.03, as she has been to the Summer palace and after she stole Katarina's diary from an FBI office.
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2020.09.18 08:42 BarneyBuckley History of Gamera

History of Gamera

Gamera
ガメラ
In this particular article I will be explaining the origins of Gamera as well as how he came to be. I will be talking about the company that first created Gamera and how it was sold to other companies all the way up to what is happening today.
Gamera is a gigantic flying Terrapin that was created by Daiei Motion Picture Company and now is owned by Kadokawa Pictures and Publishing Company. Gamera first made it on the screen in 1965 and was created simply because of the success of his counterpart and more popular monster they call Godzilla who has been on the screen a little bit low living Gamera. Godzilla started out in 1954. It was the 1960s when the “Monster Boom gained its popularity in Japan as both of these monsters are Japanese icons.
During the 1970s Gamera did attain some prominence on what is called UHF television stations that would feature these movies every Saturday morning as a Saturday matinee type movie. Gamera is a gigantic turtle that door in the Showa Series he stood at 60 m tall and door and the Heisei series he was 80 m tall. To describe Gamera even more Gamera possesses a pronounced sagittal crest on the top of his head and his mouth was filled with gigantic tea with two gigantic fangs protruding from his lower jaw or tusks.
Gamera in the Showa Series was a titanic, firebreathing, prehistoric species of tortoise or Terrapin. Gamera fed off of the petroleum-based materials that were on the planet at that time as he consumed it in order to breathe fire and fire at the Jets that would attack him. It is also known that Gamera has the capabilities of flying were Godzilla does not. By consuming the petroleum he is capable of extracting his legs in and they would ignite with flames coming out of all four legs as he propels himself spinning into the air.
Now we will talk about the original classic 1965 movie it begins showing bombers from the USSR or Russia as they are being intercepted by American fighters over the United States airspace in the Arctic. As we all know this sets off cataclysmic explosions that release Gamera from the ice and he goes on a rampage and at the end of the movie he is lured into this bay where the top of the bay is closed up it is a rocket and he is sent off into space.
Gamera has become a legacy as the Daiei Company who owned Gamera went on to create a lot of movies for the Showa Series. The next one after the original classic would be Gamera vs. Barugon which came out in 1966 and then Gamera vs. Gyaos in 1967, Gamera vs. Virus 1968, and Gamera vs. Guiron 1969, Gamera vs. Jiger 1970, Gamera vs. Zigra 1971, and finally the super cheesiest of all Gamera movies it is called “Gamera: Super Monster” which came out in 1980.
For me the movies were really good until after Gamera vs. Gyaos 1967 and then they got silly and super child friendly until Heisei Series. However that would all change for the company that created Gamera The Daiei Motion Picture Company would go bankrupt. This particular company was a product of government efforts to reorganize the film industry during World War II in order to rationalize its resources and increase control over the medium. It was then that the government plan to combine all the film studios into two companies, Masaichi Nagata, an executive at Shinkō Kinema, pressed hard for an alternative plan to create three studios. His efforts won out and Shinkō Kinema, Daito Eiga, and the production arm of Nikkatsu (the Nikkatsu theaters did not take part in the merger) were merged in 1942 to form the Dai Nippon Eiga Seisaku Kabushiki Kaisha, or Daiei for short. The novelist Kan Kikuchi served as the first president, with Nagata continuing as an executive. Daiei's studios were located in Chofu, Tokyo and in Uzumasa in Kyoto.
Nagata became president in 1947 and, apart from a brief period when he was purged by Occupation authorities, remained in that position until 1971. Under his reign, Daiei produced Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon (1950) and entered it in the Venice Film Festival, where it won the grand prize and became the first Japanese film to win an international award, thus introducing Japanese cinema to the world. Daiei also produced Teinosuke Kinugasa's Gate of Hell (1953), the first Japanese color film to be shown abroad, earning both an honorary Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. Daiei also produced such renowned films as Mizoguchi's Ugetsu (1953) and Sansho the Bailiff (1954), as well as Jokyo (which was entered into the 10th Berlin International Film Festival). On the popular front, Daiei was also known for such successful film series as the Zatoichi films starring Shintaro Katsu, the Sleepy Eyes of Death series featuring Raizō Ichikawa, the Gamera movies, and the Daimajin Trilogy. Daiei also produced many television series such as Shōnen Jet.
In its heyday, Daiei featured such talent as the actors Raizō Ichikawa, Shintaro Katsu, Kazuo Hasegawa, Fujiko Yamamoto, Machiko Kyō, and Ayako Wakao; the directors Kenji Mizoguchi, Kon Ichikawa, Yasuzo Masumura, and Kenji Misumi; and the cinematographer Kazuo Miyagawa.
Like some other film studios, Daiei had its own professional baseball team in the 1950s, the Daiei Stars, which later became the Daiei Unions. These teams eventually became the Chiba Lotte Marines.
Now let us talk about the bankruptcy of the Daiei Motion Picture Company it was back in 1971 when they tried to stay alive I teaming up with Nikkatsu and another motion picture company however with the combination of both motion picture companies it was just not enough. Because in 1971 they would declare bankruptcy and it would be the members of the union who however succeeded in getting Yasuyoshi Tokuma, the president of the publishing house, Tokuma Shoten, to revive the company in 1974.
This particular version of the Daiei motion picture company would go on to be making only a small number of films, some of which were big budget spectaculars like the international coproduction “The Go Masters” which came out in 1982 and the ever popular and ever loving “Shall We Dance?” Which came out in 1996 and later in the United States this movie would be re-created using Richard Gere, Jennifer Lopez, Susan Sarandon and a very popular cast. This movie turned out to be a very good movie both versions of this movie are very good in their own way. After all the films were produced it would soon be after the passing Yasuyoshi Tokuma, Daiei Film Co. He died on September 20, 2000 in Tokyo, Japan and the company was sold to the Kadokawa Shoten Publishing Co.
In November 2002, Chairman Maihiko Kadokawa announced that Daiei Film Co. would merge with the company’s own film division, Kadokawa Pictures to form Kadokawa-Daiei Film Co. Ltd. it was during the time that when Yasuyoshi Tokuma, owned the Daiei company he would go on to create the three movie set of the Heisei Series Gamera movies as they are respectively titled “Gamera: Guardian of the Universe” (1995), “Gamera vs. Legion” (1996), and the last movie to speak of is “Gamera vs. Iris” (1999) and these particular movies were directed by Shesuke Kaneko who also directed the Godzilla film “GMK” which came out in 2001 for the Toho company. It is these three movies that puts Gamera back in the game with special effects as well as storyline and acting that surpasses any Godzilla film out there. It was these three movies that were critically acclaimed by the Japanese people.
In November 2002 when the company was purchased by Kadokawa Shoten Publishing Co. they would create another Gamera movie however they would go back to the Showa Series and this particular movie is very kid friendly and altered in a way that it upset a lot of Gamera fans. This movie even though it was child friendly the Gamera in this movie did not look like any Gamera most people recognize. The worst part about it is that this Gamera did not have a signature roar. Another key note is they change the origins of Gamera as he is capable of exploding which to me did not make any sense however he has to consume a red rock in order to go through changes to become the Gamera that we all know he can be he cannot do this without that red rock. They tentatively name this new Gamera “Toto” he does in fact fight a monster they call “Zedus” this is a gigantic lizard like monster with a big long purple top. To me this monster is not really a worthy competitor to what Gamera has fallen in the past. However it is very accommodating that he fights a tiny Gamera which in this case he does. This movie failed in a lot of ways as it is coming from the triple threat they gave Gamera a dark and eerie presence to a child friendly presence. This particular point is what most fans did not care about the movie.
Here is some more interesting facts about Gamera and the company that created him. In 1966 the movie that was released in America as Gamera the invincible is the original 1965 classic that was directed by Noriaki Yuasa and this story was written by Nisan Takahashi it quickly became a favorite to the children who love watching Gamera fight monsters. Like I mentioned above there was a total of seven films that was produced from 1965 to 1971 and the eighth entry was slated for a 1972 release this is where the loss projects come into play and this is a movie that never came to be and this is because the company was in the bankruptcy stage before being picked back up in 1974 they had to scrap this movie because of it. The movie was called “Gamera vs. Garasharp” which would have come out in 1972 but was forced to cease production because of the bankruptcy. This particular movie would have been about Gamera fighting a snake like creature that had the hood of a cobra and the snake body with antennas on its head.
As I mentioned before the company would go on to produce the Heisei Series of Gamera movies but for all that they wanted to produce another movie that would actually come out in 1980 it was called “Gamera: Super Monster” the filmmakers at this time were forced to make this film simply because of the contracts for one more Gamera film that was owed to the original Daiei company. It was an unfortunate event that when creating this film it was mostly stock footage with new scenes of a brand-new Gamera flying. It was when the production of the film began that Yuasa saw how poorly Tokuma was handling things and knew that Gamera could have never come back from the film. So he had Takahashi rewrite the ending to where Gamera was killed at the end.
Last but not least let us talk about some upcoming and future films for Gamera fans. It was noted in that on March 2014 “Anime News Network reported that a new Gamera production is planned, with no date specified however it is planned to be released sometime in 2015. Some rumors and speculations have risen on the Internet and here are some in my humble opinion something that do not like to hear.
It is said they will change Gamera’s form now what that means is they might completely alter the look of Gamera and honestly I am not sure that is a smart thing unless they change his looks to the point that you still recognize him like they do with the Godzilla suits.
Another thing they are going to change is his origins and they did that in the last movie called “Gamera Little Brave” which came out in 2006 and that in my opinion was not a good thing for the way they portrayed Gamera in this movie it would have been okay for kids but I did not personally care for the way they handled it. Assuming they are going to change the origin in this movie I hope it has something interesting to which will not be a bad thing I think the worst thing that gets to me is a going to change the looks of Gamera I am not sure how to handle that, but we will have to wait and see.
The last keynote that I want to mention is I have heard rumors and speculations that Kadokawa Pictures are thinking about removing Gamera and the fact that he flies and I hope this is just a rumor because honestly in my opinion this would be the most stupid thing they have ever done. Keep in mind it is the 50th anniversary movie for Gamera so for them to create a film they need to completely alter the entire franchise of Gamera give us a completely different Gamera that we could be pleased with, and again we will have to wait and see how they do this!
Now this particular article is based on some trivial facts and understanding of what Gamera is and how he was created and what companies owned him and what the companies went through all the way up to today with also updates on the new Gamera movie for his 50th anniversary and I am hoping they will do this well. I hope you enjoy this article!
The End
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2020.09.18 00:06 sophwellmaxie My mom died a few days ago and I'm very lonely AMA

2020 has hit us all pretty hard. This year my (20F) mom (who's had stage 4 cancer since 2012) got diagnosed with a second cancer and opted out of treatment. She passed away about five days ago. Momma was my best friend and mom - I am so extremely lucky to be her kid.
At the beginning of the summer I was broken up with by the boy I could see myself marrying. A lot of work went into that relationship and myself, and I had never been able to trust someone like that before, but unfortunately I was more invested than he was. My feelings were more intense, and I tend to be a bit more mature than others my age, emotionally, due to the things I've gone through. That's no problem, I can't be mad at anyone for feeling or not feeling something, but my heart was very broken.
I have friends I could go to, and an amazing support system, but I just have personal issues holding me back from opening up. I have my ways of dealing with everything and it's working, I just still get lonely. Everyone around me that knows just wants to ask me how I am or is awkward and doesn't know how to treat me and that's kinda alienating sometimes. This is not a new experience, with momma being sick for so long, but it's a little extra disappointing this time around.
For those curious about cancer (we're very open ab that and her process), me, or literally just bored out of your mind and looking for a chat: AMA!
tl;dr: I'm a lonely college kid who's mom/best friend just passed away and could use some conversation - AMA
Edit: hi friends! It's currently 2:33am here and I figure I should probably sleep soon. I'll respond to the rest of y'all that I didn't get to tomorrow and I hope everybody has a good day/night! Thank you for commenting :)
Edit 2: some things about mom: - she lived with the gin blossoms before they were the gin blossoms and played the drums for them - was a drum roadie in Tempee - won an essay contest from the peace corps and went to a peace walk in the USSR. Got arrested and passport "confiscated" cause she interacted w the locals and ate their food :/ - dated the lead singer of beck for a while - survived an abusive household and was still able to forgive and love the rest of the family (besides the abuser, who I'm also not a fan of but still respect as an elder)
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2020.09.17 13:02 closeprotections Close Protection London Close Protection Services London

Close protection – is a concept that has been known for ages – it has been with us since early days of humankind and now its condition is more than satisfactory. Since time immemorial, people have tried to protect their wealth, assets, as well as their own health, life, and welfare. By means of the transfer of gathered goods, wealthy individuals have been paying other parties to protect them, their families, and possessions from others. As a general rule, young, notably strong, and grim-looking individuals have been considered perfectly suitable for such a job. The idea behind such a choice has been to scare away a potential adversary by taking advantage of the very looks of the guard. The aforementioned state of affairs has been observed for the consecutive ages. Wealthy landowners and kings created their own trusted guards (in ancient times and during the medieval age, those were troops designated to protect the authorities; later on, they were transformed into elite soldiers). Aside from serving representative and managerial purposes, such individuals were required to take care of their master and his beloved ones. In the 11th century England, during the Battle of Hastings, King Harold assembled a group of troops to protect his life and widely understood health condition. One may consider them to be the ancestors of modern bodyguards. As both civilization and society progressed, there were an increasing number of various organizations and people. Therefore, the risk of attack was significantly higher. Numerous authorities attempted to discourage potential aggressors from committing a crime by introducing severe forms of punishment. It must be noted, however, that there was still the question if it was enough to protect high authorities and the wealthy from the effects of outside attacks. The protection-oriented market has been developing to be – at some point – dominated by professional soldiers. The said progression has made it possible for police officers to investigate and deal with common, less dangerous crimes only. Together with technical revolution and the increasing social awareness, the number of citizens not satisfied with the current order skyrockets. It is likely to cause radical groups aiming at the change of the existing ruling paradigm to occur. This in turn may lead to anarchy and the increase in people willing to put their antisocial theories and plans into effect. The latter may start from sabotaging the work of others and demolishing valuable devices, but it may also end up in killings. If such a thing happens, one may openly talk about terrorism. The unusual social situation boosts the demand for personal protection. Both the army and police focus on securing the wellbeing of those of high position in the country. The rest of the threatened society must protect itself. The demand identified above has given rise to a new profession – a security guard. In the past, it was performed in a more or less organized fashion and that is why the effectiveness of arising task achievement varied. The attempt on Tsar’s Alexander the Second life on 1st March 1881 is a perfect exemplification of the formulated thesis. The ruler in question was attacked by the members of Narodnaya Volya at 2:15 P.M. A bomb was thrown under the carriage, but its explosion did not harm either the tsar or the horses. Alexander the Second, together with his companion including secret police representatives, started to assess damages. It was a mistake. At 2:20 P.M, yet another bomb was detonated. Its accuracy was notably higher as it managed to severely injure the tsar. He died relatively quickly, even with professional care he was under. At this point, it must be indicated that the demand for close protection increases. However, the perception of it is in a significant number of cases rather faulty, leading to pitiful outcomes. As it was hundreds of years earlier, modern people tend to hire grim musclemen to protect them, disregarding the fact that their intellectual level and possessed knowledge are negligible. Formerly, a test had to be passed in order for a person to be considered a bodyguard. Unfortunately, it does not hold true anymore. On numerous occasions, we can observe security guards stylized to look like stats of action movies, with the lack of intelligence written all over their faces. To give them justice, such people may also perform exceptionally well – up to the time they encounter a real attack. Unprofessional guards may be employed to protect rock stars or boxers. Real bodyguards of today are, however, highly skilled and motivated. They are trained to prevent rather than to counteract, as it may be too late in the latter case. Such people are capable of estimating potential risk and juxtaposing it with the resources at their disposal that may minimize it. Modern security guards are physically active, as well as skilled in giving first aid and driving a car defensively. They can fight without using any weapon – especially by taking advantage of psychology and persuasion. Such people are proficient in at least two languages and are characterized by an above-average intelligence level. The described model of a security guard is perfectly suited to current conditions and the needs of individuals hiring them.

VIP close protection over the world – organizations specializing in personal protection. One of the most famous and at the same time – the oldest organized bodies dealing with close protection was created in the 19th century. It was the American United States Secret Service. The USSS was created in 1865 as the US Treasury Law Enforcement Agency. Secret Service is the oldest national agency focusing entirely on investigations. Initially, their only task was to protect the economic structure of the country by means of preventing governmental cheques and bonds from being counterfeited. The mission was followed up to 1901, when president William McKinley was attacked in Buffalo (NY state). The assault resulted in appointing the Secret Service by the US Congress to protect the newly elected president, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1906, the Congress finally adopted the act on the responsibility of the Secret Service for the safety of the White House. Since 1950, the protection has been extended from presidents and first ladies only to vice-presidents as well. Before the murder of John F. Kennedy in 1963 and senator Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, the Secret Service had been a relatively small organization, employing as many as 284 agents. The discussed events translated directly into its rapid development. Currently, it is stated that over 5000 employees work for the Secret Service. Separate branches of the organization are located all over the United States, in Puerto Rico, and in other places all over the world (Paris, Lyon, London, Bonn, Rome, Milano, Hong Kong, Montreal, Lefkosa, Bogota, and Manila). The representatives of the organization are both secret agents (serving protection and investigation-related roles), as well as uniformed units responsible for the safety of the White House and diplomatic outposts. They maintain law and order by means of the network of both foot and motorized patrols, as well as of fixed posts. Such people also support other branches of the Secret Service. A wide scope of professional is also employed therein – those are electronics, engineers, communication experts, protection-related professionals, and IT workers. The Secret Service protects the president with his family, vice-president, elected vice-president, candidates for the said posts (from the 120th day before the elections onwards), former president, his children up to 16, as well as heads of other states staying in the USA in order to realize international missions. The unit of the Secret Service liable for taking care about the safety of the president in the White House fulfills its duties in identical uniforms. Due to the said fact, the Secret Service is sometimes referred to as the Uniformed Division. Its tasks also include the protection of president’s mansions, diplomatic outposts in Washington, and places alike located within the borders of the USA.

Another known formation is the Swiss Guard (Latin: Cohors Helvetica) which was for the very first time gathered on 22nd January 1506 by the then pope – Julius II. Its major aim was to protect the spiritual successor of Saint Peter and his palace. The pope wanted to grant himself protection from the enemies and avoid a political murder. In 1512, the Guard secured Vatican against French soldiers. The Defendants of the Church, as the representatives of the discussed formation were also called, had to face the biggest trail while taking care of pope Clemens VII during the invasion of Roman emperor, Charles V. The boldness, discipline, and resourcefulness of the representatives of the Guard made it possible to save the life of the pope, even though about 600 bold men died in the process. To commemorate the event, a solemn vow of the newly appointed guards takes place every year on 6th May. Each of the Swiss guards-to-be holds a banner in his left hand and raises his right hand with the thumb and two other fingers in an upright position (it is the symbol of the Holy Trinity). Then, the new soldiers promise to protect the pope and – to die in his defense if necessary. The representatives of the Swiss Guard are chosen from men between the age of 19 and 25 living in one of Swiss cantons (basing on contracts with Zurich and Lucerne). Each of them has to be at least 174 cm (5 feet and a half inch) tall and be an unmarried practicing Catholic (according to a special letter issued by the local bishop). Candidates for the service are properly trained, including teaching them how to use firearms, side arms, as well as how to defend themselves and establish proper contacts with other people. One of the items of the list is the proper usage of halberd. Currently, the number of soldiers in the Guard is estimated to circulate around 120, including officers, junior, and senior soldiers. They serve in the formation from two to twenty-five years. It must be also indicated at this point that officers and senior sergeants may be granted by the pope the right to enter into a holy matrimony. Aside from their characteristic outfit, soldiers are additionally equipped with halberds and Renaissance swords – those are the symbols of formation’s tradition. Nowadays, they are also fitted with firearms, tear gas, and excellent communication-oriented devices. With its almost five hundred years of heritage, the Swiss Guard is one of the oldest active defense-oriented groups in the world. One may assume that it will last until Switzerland and the Catholic Church exist.

Yet another example of a close protection-focused formation is the Cedrug Order, the major task of which is to take care about the ruler of Tibet – Dalai Lama. It comprises of national spiritual authorities who organized themselves in a form of an order. Thanks to strict upbringing, their physical strength is much higher than the one of secular officials. Therefore, the former are the most trusted soldiers caring about the safety of the leader of the nation. Cedurg School is located in the left wing of Potala – the palace of Dalai Lama, which is in turn situated in the Holy City of Lhasa (eastern Tibet, Kyitsu river valley). Every Tibet citizen is allowed to enroll to the school, but only chosen ones are granted the privilege to join the Order. For several hundred years, there have been a limited number of monks allowed, namely – 175. Only selected candidates have been worthy enough to defend the powerful Dalai Lama. Those are especially bold, tall, and muscular men. The representatives of the Order earned their name in 1959, when they protected the king of Tibet against Chinese adversaries.

One of the biggest organizations in the world established to consociate and train bodyguards is the International Bodyguard Association (IBA). The IBA was established in 1957 in Paris by major Lucien Victor Ott. Major Ott had been closely connected to the French Foreign Legion in Algeria since his early childhood. He had been born and raised in the said country. In 1947, he joined the French Special Forces and took part in France-Indochina war. Furthermore, he was the participant of the battle of Dien-Bien Phu that ended with the defeat of the French forces. He was being injured and captured by Vietminh. After a bold escape, he decided to join forces with the French Military Intelligence (Deuxieme Bureau). Major Lucien Ott got famous due to, inter alia, perfect securing of president Charles de Gaulle against the OAS terrorist organization. Thanks to him, 30 prepared attacks were foiled, 11 of which were aimed directly at the head of the state. After the death of the creator of a modern bodyguard profile, major Ott, one of his students – James G. Shortt took care of the management of the IBA. As a young man, he had joined a cadet school. Later on, he had become landing operation troops officer and a member of the elite SAS (Special Air Service) unit. Moreover, during his service, he also taught soldiers in Afghanistan the art of Mujahedeen war. Currently, he teaches security guards, police officers, and soldiers all over the world in the IBA branches. The main aim of the organization is to properly prepare bodyguards-to-be to properly perform their duties. It is not an entity employing such individuals, but those who have presented exceptional skills may become members of royal, diplomatic, or personal guards recommended by the IBA. Coaches being the representatives of the organization trained bodyguards in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as helped during the Baltic Crisis between 1989 and 1991. The qualifications of the International Bodyguard Association are exceptional, international, and backed by the documentation concerning the organization of training sessions for the military, governmental authorities, police, and private bodyguards all over the world. Such undertakings have been continuously performed since 1957. The IBA also operates and trains willing individuals in Poland. Its branch was established in the said country in 1992. The basic training offered to candidates includes 60 hours of comprehensive preparation divided into six consecutive days. After its completion, the candidates are required to undergo the so-called refresher once a year. It is one of the conditions of the membership in the IBA.

Another training organization worth mentioning is the ESI - Executive Security International. It must be highlighted that it is one of the biggest and most appreciated American companies oriented towards training personal protection guards. Its second name is as follows: Bodyguard Training Academy for Executive, Dignitary and Celebrity Protection. The ESI was formed at the beginning of the 80s by Bob Duggan – martial arts expert and master in Hwarang Do. Its creation had been preceded by the establishment of the very first bodyguard training program by the Martial Arts Academy in Aspen, Colorado. The ESI, being one of the USA’s private schools, offers its students over 2000 hours of education with regard to protection, investigation, data gathering, company and individual security, etc. The training unit of the organization is situated high up in the mountains and is run by skilled professionals. Fun fact – film writer, Tracy Keenan Wynn, cooperates with the ESI. His preeminent task has been to create scenarios of situational exercises. While writing them, the said individual takes advantage of real life situations and attacks, such as assaults on Aldo Moro, John Paul the Second, kidnapping of Hans Martin Schleyer by the RAF (Red Army Faction), and scenarios alike. The ESI collaborates with corporations operating in the close protection branch of industry, as well as with the police and military. The organized training sessions are top secret. No journalists are allowed to enter the Aspen unit. Due to the fact that the ESI is a private school, it may provide professional training to civil, police-related, and military institutions all over the world.

The citizens of Israel have never had the chance to feel safe in their country. The issue of safety has been always treated seriously there. Aside from a constant Israel-Arab world conflict threat, the Israelis have been the subjects of terrorist attracts, both within the borders of their country and outside it. Jews and Americans are most frequent victims of operations organized by highly skilled terrorist groups. Taking into account the impact the Russian mafia has on Israel, the amount of care put on widely understood safety is fully justified. The Israeli Special Forces protect their citizens by means of intelligence and security-oriented undertakings. They host training sessions in various organizations preparing bodyguards, providing the adepts with the experience gained during the service. Most famous units of the said kind in Israel are undoubtedly the ISA - International Security Academy and the ISS - International Security School.

ISA is an international organization established and managed by former leaders, police instructors, and special service members. The very first unit of the ISA was formed in Latvia as a training and advising agency for both governmental and private security guards belonging to the Baltic States and the countries of the former USSR. The fact that the ISA is not exclusively Israeli in character is proved by the figure of the organization chairman, major Urlich Wegener – the creator and very first leader of German Border Control Service called GSG 9. The team of instructors and coaches also has international roots. The credo of the organization is that the preparation of the individuals for the proper protection of others is the key. Such people have to be offered highest quality training, extensive knowledge, and practical background. The ISS training programs are based predominantly on the experiences gained in Israel and in other countries, as well as while training people for the purpose of protecting VIPs over the world. Individuals, governmental authorities, and large-size corporations have been taking advantage of the services provided by the ISA/ISS.

At the moment, civil bodyguards are also involved in close protection. The safety of the individuals hiring them, as well as their possessions depends highly on the qualifications of the former. Quite frequently, those are former policemen, soldiers, or special force members. However, a number of inexperienced adepts would like to start their adventure with personal protection as well. Are they bound to fail in their attempts? It is not always so. The most crucial component affecting the effectiveness of the training is one’s psychological preparation. It is a commonly known fact that it is exceptional in former police officers and troops. However, it is a common belief that one can be trained how to perform the job of a bodyguard, just as it is possible to teach a person how to shoot or be properly engaged in melee combat. It all depends on one’s motivation and willingness to achieve success in the industry. Regulations to date limit the training process of a security guard to the moment of being awarded with a license. In order to perform his tasks properly, such a person has to constantly improve his skills and qualifications.

Phenomena connected with the need of utilization of close protection techniques – Terrorism/Terrorist. It goes without saying that terrorism is one of the biggest threats of today’s world. While analyzing the severity of attacks and their scale, one should not doubt that VIPs should be at all possible occasions protected against the aforementioned forms of assault. In order to assess the threat a given problem pose, its specificity must be identified at first. The notion of „terrorism” was for the first time in history used during the Conference of the International Criminal Law Association in Brussels, in 1930. To date, there have been approximately 200 various definitions of the phenomenon in question. While trying to grasp its characteristic features, one will face a number of limitations and difficulties. One of statements of historian Walter Laqueur has to be touched upon here. While asked why he has been avoiding formulating an unequivocal definition of terrorism, he replied: „For 50 or so years, people are constantly trying to understand the idea behind terrorism. It is a phenomenon having different forms, depending on its place of origin and epoch. How can one find common ground between Russian revolutionists from the end of the 19th century and Al-Qaida anarchists?

Terrorism is mainly based on the utilization of force or threat in order to achieve political or ideological goals. It is hard to say something beyond that. Terrorism is like pornography – it escapes logical classification, but if one sees it – then it becomes apparent.” It is hard to argue with the statement, as it perfectly shows the complexity of the phenomenon in question. For the purpose of this publication, a strict definition of terrorism is not needed. All that is required is the utterance formulated by Walter Laqueur stating that terrorism can be most fully perceived through its manifestations. Terrorist acts are undoubtedly illegal, as they are based on kidnapping people and forcedly taking control over means of communication, economic sabotage, attacks, robberies, demanding ransom to finance organization’s own activity, posing threat to life, health, and freedom of authorities, and kidnapping people from outside the area in order to gain publicity (especially journalists, priests, voluntary workers). One may also indicate the usage of explosives and firearms in public areas and poisoning certain spots by means of radioactive materials and chemicals. Longin Tadeusz Szmidt additionally pointed out that terrorism has always been strictly connected with crafty and hard to identify methods of killing the leaders of nations. While describing the phenomenon of terrorism as a threat for the protected person, one should also point out and indicate its sources. The following are enumerated: - social and economic sources that are directly connected to economic crises, social tensions, social and national discrimination, as well as with the perception of dissonance between the factual reality and the one presented by the media; - historical and political sources. They have their beginning in severe social reactions, demanding full democratization and respecting human rights; - sociological sources that may be related to the atmosphere typical for a given country or the so-called spirit of violence; - psychological sources stating that a significant part of terrorists is highly mentally unstable which is additionally combined with the overly high self-esteem. When it comes to the area of attack, the following are proposed by the experts: - land terrorism (the major threat area for VIPs and the key one for security guards), - air terrorism (personal protection is then entrusted to the authorities managing planes, airports, etc.), and – maritime terrorism (tasks and responsibilities are then similar to air attacks). While taking into account the type of terroristic activities, one may distinguish: bombing-based, nuclear, biological, chemical, technical, cybernetic (attacks on IT networks), and narcotic-oriented (narcotic cartels undertakings) terrorism. The highest threat for VIPs is undoubtedly the first type, namely – bombing-based one. Close protection-oriented undertakings should therefore incorporate the knowledge on paradigms effective during a bomb attack. They will be discussed in further sections of this publication. It is exceptionally difficult to argue with the thesis that we must be protected against terrorism. The same applies to VIPs. The importance of the latter is also worth discussing, as the threat is much higher when a top authority is attacked than when the assault poses threat to a pop star or a wealthy businessman. However, it does not limit the necessity to analyze and counteract terroristic attack threat. It may directly impact the safety of the person a given security guard is responsible for.

Crime is also one of the issues that may endanger protected VIPs. Up to the beginning of the 80s, Poland had been considered to be one of the safest countries in Europe. Law enforcement bodies had been numerous and properly financed there, and crime forecasting, prevention, and penalizing schemes had met all the European standards. However, at the end of the discussed period, the myth of threat-free Poland started to crumble. The effects of crime fighting scene were becoming gradually more negligible. The said state of affairs was predominantly caused by the decreasing trust in law enforcing organizations, as well as by the rapid increase in crimes committed by the citizens. Another important aspect that must be taken into account were economic and political changes taking place in 1989,the liberalization of economic activity, and the emergence of free market. Some individuals possessed unimaginable riches, whereas others were exceptionally poor. In order to survive till the next day, the latter searched for the answer in crimes, leading to the occurrence of the phenomenon commonly known as organized crime. According to official data from 2001, within the borders of Poland, there were over 400 organized crime groups consociating approximately 45 thousand people. They were generating profits by means of goods smuggling, selling stolen cars, producing and marketing narcotics, counterfeiting national currency, commuting bank frauds, selling firearms, and – what is of exceptional importance from the point of view of VIPs – demanding ransom. Criminals induce fear in the society, especially due to using terror and blackmailing. They do not hesitate to kidnap others or kill them. Such individuals resort to brutal treatment, such as beating, torturing, drowning, etc. All those factors combined directly translate into wealthy representatives of the society feeling threatened. What is more, criminals frequently tend to attack the family of a VIP as well, in order to convince him to perform a given action. Therefore, children, wife, and beloved ones of such an individual must be highly protected.

Popularity/Fame –The threat of attack may be in some cases linked to the popularity of a given human being. When a VIP is in isolation, then he may only receive unwanted phone calls or be nagged by photographers. The problem arises when he has to leave his place of permanent residence or workplace, as well as when he is in a publically accessible place. Danger may still be low, but the inquisitiveness of journalist may quickly become overwhelming. Fans or supporters of a given sportsman or artist may cause havoc in order to touch their idol or get hold of any item belonging to him or her. Of course, there is also the risk of serious injuries or even death (let us take John Lennon as an example) – it cannot be neglected. That is why famous and popular individuals should by all means care about their safety. The matter also concerns politicians who are widely recognizable and controversial. In politics, there are no limitations. Opponents may even resort to killing a representative of the other side to impose his or her right on others. Elected politicians tend to have close protection, but care should be additionally exercised to care about those running in elections. Such VIPs may be ridiculed by the crowd or the opposition (by throwing eggs or pouring water over the candidate), leading to the end of their political career. The role of security guards should in the aforementioned cases not be limited to physical protection only. They must also keep information about VIP’s family, realized projects, and operation profile confidential. The image of a famous person highly depends on the bodyguards being in his immediate surroundings. The manner of their operation, professionalism, and knowledge are top priorities there.

Attack on person – By definition, attack on person is the attempt to kill someone, steal his or her possessions, as well as to kidnap him or her. The criminal action in question has a long history, as assaults have been made throughout the consecutive ages. Their goal has been to achieve a political, economic, or cultural aim. Attacks on person may lead to tremendous changes in the society, which is perfectly depicted by the killing of John Kennedy and Icchak Rabin. In the majority of cases, however, such an attack does not have significantly far-reaching consequences. In order to be effective, bodyguards must answer themselves the following questions – why do criminals attack? How do they attack? How may the assault look like? Therefore, it is highly advised to specify the motif, methods utilized, and consecutive stages of one and every attack on person. Taking into account motifs, one must bear in mind that all the assaults have their agenda. No attack is made voluntarily, without forethought. In the following sections, most common causes of the aforementioned activity are going to be enumerated:

Revolutionary or political ones – organized groups (frequently consisting of fanatics) attack others in order to force the society to change the existing system or overthrow the current government (in the attempt to choose a new one). Their victims are often the authorities ruling the country. The attackers, who follow their revolutionary or political agenda, try to win the sympathy of other representatives of the society. Long before the planned attack itself, they distribute leaflets blaming current rulers for the widespread injustice. According to their belief, the elimination of the elites in power would bring positive outcomes for the whole country. Such an action was performed in Armenia in 1999, where members of the government were shot dead during one of their meetings. The terrorists informed that their death would improve the national situation.

Economic – terrorists claim that their potential victim is responsible for the poor economic condition of the country, company, or a group of people. In the majority of cases, economic attacks take place in countries where there are extreme disproportions between the wealthy and the poor. It must be taken into consideration, however that it is not always the case, as the assessment of the attackers tend to be highly subjective. Quite frequently, the cause of the assault is the personal conviction that the unsatisfying economic condition of the terrorist is the result of actions performed by the victim. It pushes the attacker into thinking that killing him would aid the situation.

Personal – In this case, the wrongdoers are motivated to make an attack due to jealousy, vengeance or other personal causes. Those people in many cases have notable personality disorders, manifesting themselves especially in the inability to control their behavior. The aforementioned state also leads to the failure to distinguish reality from fiction. A perfect exemplification of the motif in question is shooting Zuzanna Leśniak and an artist – Andrzej Zaucha by Yves Goulais in 1991. The trigger there was jealousy.

Ideological – The terrorist is convinced that the victim chosen by him has been threatening the values and principles followed by the attacker. The said rules are often of significant importance for both the group he belongs to and for himself personally. Ideological attacks on a person may be religious or social in character. The first case is oriented towards killing a religious person in the attempt to make it impossible for him to achieve his goals. The second scenario relates to the willingness to eliminate the leader of a given social group. Quite frequently, the additional agenda is to make the organization the terrorist is a part of more memorable and popular in the media. Free publicity is an additional benefit then.

Psychological – The most commonplace group of attacks. Modern psychology claims that every person using firearms, stabbing others with a knife, or taking advantage of explosives has been struggling with mental problems. The motif is of negligible importance, as the attacker may justify his actions with revolutionary, economic, or personal goals, but the fact is that the driving force is the inability to perceive the world correctly. The assassination of Bill Clinton in 1994 illustrates the above bluntly. Francisco Martin Duran stated that he had attacked Clinton to destroy the mist connecting him to an alien entity. Apparently, Duran wanted to eliminate the mist in order to save the world. Attacks considered as crimes may be triggered by a myriad of factors. Among them,there are: - clashes between the representatives of a crime organization, willingness to demonstrate one’s power or threat the victim (attempt to force the latter to pay ransom or forget about debts), - desire to kill suspects that may endanger one’s business, - attempt to exert pressure on certain individuals or to threaten them for their professional achievements (relates to, inter alia, attorneys and tax collectors).

Attack methods to be considered by security guards. Close range attack. It may be performed by means of utilization of: - firearms, - melee weapon (knife, bayonet, dagger), - chemical substance (for example: toxic substance, such as hydrochloric acid). There are no exceptional skills needed to successfully attack a person, as almost everybody can use a knife or a dagger to a satisfactory extent. The same goes with firearms, the utilization of which is as difficult as driving a car. The aforementioned types of weapons can be transported to the place of the assault with ease. The characteristic feature of this attack type is the fact that the wrongdoer is situated maximally several centimeters away from the victim. The difficulty here is directly connected with the inability to improvise the act. It must be preceded by a prolonged observation of the subject, learning his or her customs, daily routine, places he or she visits, and the protection type he or she uses. Only after drawing proper conclusions from the examination, can the terrorist attack the victim. Marek Papała, a police commissioner, was killed due to a close range attack in 1998, Warsaw.

Long-range attack – in this case firearms are often used, especially rifles and carbines. It is not an uncommon situation to learn about an attacker who has used a sniper rifle fitted with professional laser and optical aiming devices. The distance between the wrongdoer and the subject of the attack is commonly higher than 5 meters. The former must also be much more skilled than a close range attacker, as he has to be capable of utilizing a professional gun in an effective manner. The death of John Kennedy in Dallas on 22nd November 1963 was the result of the attack form in question. Lee Harvey Oswald, who was a former marine soldier, shot his subject from a storage located several meters away from president’s cavalcade. To perform the act, he used Mannlicher-Carcano, cal. 6.5 mm rifle. The proficiency of the attacker was proven by the fact that he fired three shots and only one of them missed the target.

Attack with explosives – it requires notable skills, for the wrongdoers has to build a bomb before performing the attack. He must also know how and where to plant the explosive, how to situate the fuse inside and where to detonate it. Such a person also has to be familiar with the effects of explosion. Assault on Margaret Thatcher on 12th October 1984 showed how patient and clever can an attacker taking advantage of explosives be. Patrick Magee, a member of Irish Republican Army, moved into the hotel where the British prime minister was expected to stay 24 days before the said fact. Every single day, he worked meticulously destroying the wall and placing a 50-kilogram explosive inside the hole. The bomb was then fitted with a timer. It exploded when Miss Thatcher was considered to wash herself in the bathroom – the attacker was perfectly acquainted with her customs. She would have died if she had not received a document to be read. The explosive was detonated five floors above the bathroom located in the apartment of the „Iron Lady”. Six other people died as a result, but the suspect managed to avoid the clever assassination.

If you are looking to hire close protection in London do not wait and contact us immiedletly for professional bodyguard services in London.
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2020.09.16 20:26 ar_david_hh Sep/16/2020 news: \\ education reforms: Minister & opposition locked in a fierce battle \\ Pashinyan about judges, COVID \\ irrigated lands \\ drivers in Russia \\ USA trade \\ sheep production \\ ozone & nature \\ paternity leave \\ FDIC insurance \\ doctors protest \\ Hrant Dink \\ cattle cave \\

major bolola happened today

Education Minister Harutyunyan files lawsuit over "defamatory fake news"

As part of the 2019-ongoing political campaign against Education Minister Harutyunyan, several "traditionalist" opposition figures circulated rumors that the Ministry plans to use խուժան school books containing questionable and expletive content for "sexual education".
The Ministry said the circulated book was unrelated to the upcoming education reforms, and that they have no such plans. That didn't stop BHK leader Tsarukyan from claiming "look at how Ministry is brainwashing our kids with perverted sexual stuff" during his recent speech to supporters.
 
Today the Education Minister Harutyunyan decided to file a defamation lawsuit against those who claimed he was distributing those books. "The financial compensation will be used to buy furniture for one of the kindergartens."
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195849

ARF holds protests against Minister

ARF resumed the 2019 rallies against Harutyunyan. He is accused of harming traditional values, language, church, poor management, etc.
https://factor.am/283965.html

the protests reach Parliament

LHK party took the protest to Parliament building by hanging an anti-Harutyunyan poster on the main floor, after receiving permission from Speaker Mirzoyan. LHK joins ARF and BHK with the demand for Harutyunyan's resignation.
Ruling QP MPs trolled the poster by taking a photo with it because it contains the ruling party's "make a step" slogan.
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195866
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195876

Education Minister Harutyunyan fires back at critics / Discusses reforms

Minister Harutyunyan: // there are big reforms on the horizon, so certain political circles are concerned that the introduction of critical thinking in schools will take away their future "voter base".
Some "experts" who incorrectly characterized the history book reforms as "anti-Armenian" used to be fed by the former regime to write falsified materials that appeased the former regime. They've been cut off from the funding, so now they're upset. We involved many teachers and real experts during the development of the new curriculum.
 
the resignation calls
I won't meet activists whose only demand is my resignation. If there was a reason for my resignation I would do it in an instant. No such topic has been brought up during party talks.
I met the students who faced difficulties with new university admission rules, but unfortunately, some of them were influenced by political circles and had different motives behind complaints. I won't meet that specific group.
 
ruling MP's resignation
I haven't had discussions with [recently resigned QP MP and wrestler] Julfalakyan in months. [He resigned after having sports-related differences, allegedly with deputy Minister. Education Ministry includes Sports Ministry]. Julfalakyan could have used his right to raise a topic but we held 0 conversations.
 
the boxes
ARF gave me boxes so I could pack my personal items and leave. I could use those boxes to stuff them with materials about past corruption and send it back to ARF. [ARF responded saying the Minister only remembers about corruption when he's criticized.]
 
tuition aid?
We're currently discussing a possible COVID-related tuition subsidy for university students. We received a letter signed by 5,000 students yesterday. There might be a meeting with them soon.
 
teachers
So far we mass-tested 6,000 teachers before the school season. Only 1% had COVID. There will be unannounced visits to schools to make sure safety rules are respected.
 
school management
Schools will be governed differently after reforms. Multiple schools will be included in one network governed by one board. The number of board members will reduce so thousands of people won't have to travel for a board meeting. Board members will be retrained. They won't be under influence of certain groups as it was done in the past.
 
meddling in others' affairs
The opposition accuses us of pressuring others. Let me tell you a story. LHK MP1 calls and tells me to support a certain library director against protesters, while LHK MP2 later calls and says it's the protesters who are correct, and I should punish the library director.
Look up how many of my preferred candidates won seats in govt-funded organizations, in which the boards - mind you - were formed by our rules... not many did. For you it's a weakness, for me it's a strength.
 
science & unis
The reforms will allow better cooperation between universities and research institutes, independent activities for scientific organizations, creation of scientific consortia, postgraduate programs will be brought in line with European standards.
 
teacher shortage
Teachers who move to border or mountainous areas, where there is a shortage of tutors, will receive a 30% raise and other benefits.
 
more schools
We opened 60 new preschools as part of a plan to enroll 70% of 3-6yo kids by 2023.
37 new small schools will be built by 2021. We spent an unprecedented $4m in 2020. //
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195878
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027806.html
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027810.html
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027821.html
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195889
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027841.html
http://arka.am/en/news/society/armenia_to_implement_major_education_reforms_/
https://youtu.be/YRoelVkffZQ?t=15
Tag: #EducationReforms #ArayikHarutyunyan #bolola

Minister Harutyunyan goes full savage in Parliament / Tsarukyan & church rape

There was a Q&A in Parliament during which opposition BHK MPs accused Education Minister Harutyunyan of incompetence and damaging Armenian values and failed reforms.
At one point, Harutyunyan fired back by saying the new curriculum will help certain groups [BHK folks] better control their hormones and respect the church, so they won't rape women in church premises anymore.
Context: during USSR, the BHK leader Tsarukyan and his friends were convicted of raping a Russian tourist in an abandoned church. President Kocharyan's judge would later overturn the verdict after Tsarukyan became a business partner with the Kocharyan family.
 
BHK accused the Minister of inappropriate language because he referred to Tsarukyan and his friends as "a group of Kotayk residents with hormones". They said it was offensive because it targeted the entire Kotayk population.
The Minister responded saying it was directed towards a specific group and nothing to do with Kotayk as a whole.
 
Minister Harutyunyan displayed a 1998 խուժան book and accused opposition BHK of lying about him trying to introduce that book into the curriculum. "A complete lie, dear parents. Be vigilant and don't let them manipulate you. The reforms will benefit your children."
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195901

Pashinyan talks about Constitutional Court judges

"The Constitutional Court crisis is over", said Pashinyan in Parliament, a day after Parliament nominated 3 new judges. He criticized some groups for wanting to appoint [pro-governemnt or anti-Roboserj] partisan judges.
Pashinyan: // Some groups are upset because they wanted to see their folks in the court. Now they teach us about the revolution's values and how the new judges don't meet those values, as if we don't know what the values are. It's not a perfect court. The govt did its duties. //
Some of the aforementioned anti-Roboserj activists later complained about his harsh tone and told him to calm down.
 
Context: The 3 seats were vacated after a bill was passed that fired the judges who served terms longer than what the Constitution envisioned for new judges. This was a "compromise" solution by the government because it didn't remove all of the former regime's judges, and even kept HHK MP Tovmasyan in court.
https://www.armtimes.com/hy/article/195913
https://news.am/arm/news/602526.html

deserted lands to get water

Choratan's new 3.7km irrigation network is under construction. Soon, the locals will turn the abandoned lands into figs, walnuts, and pineapple gardens.
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195844

soldier dies in front lines

The second day of a shootout on the border, after Azeris tried to do engineering work. An Armenian contractor died today. An Azeri soldier was wounded yesterday.
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195884

Russia will allow migrant drivers to use original licenses

Armenia had earlier asked Russia to allow migrants from EAEU member-states to use their home country licenses for driving jobs. Russia has agreed. They'll amend their law to make the exception.
Earlier, the only exception was if the driver came from a country where Russian was an official language. When the bill passes, the "EAEU" will become the second qualifier.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027890.html

trade with the United States

The govt met American colleagues to discuss trade cooperation, American laws/standards for imports, GSP trade system for Armenian businesses.
 
The trade with the U.S. rose by 48% in 2019, reaching $334m. Exports +13% ($54m), imports +57% ($280m).
 
Armenia exported metals, diamonds, alcohol, canned fruits, nuts, and berries.
Armenia imported cars, medical devices, rope and thread, poultry and meat, medicine.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027787.html

massive rise in sheep exports

Pashinyan: we exported +256% sheep in 1H. 41,000 small-sized cattle worth $3.4m. This is a direct result of our earlier programs. I continue to be convinced that cattle is one of our agricultural industry's most prospective branches. It's a great way to defeat poverty. Farmers should take advantage of govt subsidies by joining cooperatives.
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195853

Artsakh will also develop its cattle industry

President Arayik: we'll soon import and distribute 10,000 Adilbay and Kalmikian sheep to our farmers. Experts say we can breed 500,000 sheep.
For comparison, today we have 70,000 less productive ones. The growth numbers cited by Pashinyan shows that we have a potential in Artsakh, too.
For the next 5 years, the govt will import and give the female sheep to farmers.
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195881

Lydian meeting

Pashinyan met Amulsar gold miner Lydian's board member Jeffrey Coach to discuss the topic of suspended mining operations and environmental issues.
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195893

Ozone layer is recovering

Ozone can be damaged by certain chemicals. The international community has taken steps to replace 99% of them. It'll take 100 years for the negative effects to fully disappear.
It's recovering, though. Armenian scientists have been using a special device to track the ozone layer for 21 years. They recorded the past decade's best result in 2019.
https://youtu.be/BDVFemLFufY
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027891.html

Lebanese-Armenians

The police released a video to guide Lebanese diasporans on how to obtain a passport, drivers' license, etc.
https://youtu.be/WdJdCJ6VBKU

Parliament approves paternity leave and parental protections

Parliament voted 116-1 to approve the QP bill. It'll give 5 days of paid paternity leave to fathers, and prevent employers from worsening the workers' rights and terms within 1 year of child's birth.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027789.html

FDIC insurance limit has been raised

Parliament voted 117-0 to approve a BHK bill to provide more protection to bank account holders.
If your bank goes bust, you are guaranteed to receive up to $33,000 if your money is in Drams, or $15,000 if it's in foreign currency.
It used to be $21,000 and $11,000.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027793.html

Yolyan blood center ex-director charged w/embezzlement

Yolyan center's former director colluded with his secretaries to embezzle a portion of salary bonuses, worth $56,000, that was meant to be paid to employees between 2001-2018, according to authorities.
A felony case is launched. https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195872

Yolyan blood center's new director

Samvel Danielyan replaced the aforementioned Yolyan director in 2018. He has been laid off.
Due to his retirement age, the law prohibits the renewal of his contract as a director, explained Healthcare Ministry.
Nonetheless, several doctors want him to stay. Child cancer clinic director Gevorg Tamamyan and his colleagues also decided to quit unless the Yolyan director stays. They sent a letter to Pashinyan to intervene.
"We aren't sure if the law prohibits renewal of his contract, but even if it does, the govt should do everything possible to find solutions to preserve experts like him."
https://factor.am/283737.html
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195897

LED lights

FPWC doesn't just protect wild animals. They want to help nature. They teamed up with Viva Telecom to install energy-efficient street lighting in Vaghanit. The LED uses 80% less energy.
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195896

ախմախ լակոտ

A resident of Sari Tagh district welded a giant cross... on a live gas pipeline. The emergency department warned against messing with the gas. The cross was removed.
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195892

COVID stats

Whopping +4135 tested (many teachers).+257 infected. +128 healed. +3 deaths. 247,839 tested.
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195865
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027823.html

COVID vs tourism

An expert says Armenia lost $700m from tourism drop during the pandemic. That's ~800,000 tourists who could have spent ~$800 each.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1027889.html

Pashinyan about COVID tickets

"The $20 tickets won't be refunded. The collected funds will be used towards healthcare and subsidies," said the PM.
The opposition is against penalizing those who violate the mask requirement and they want the past tickets refunded.
https://www.panarmenian.net/arm/news/285199/

Pashinyan about COVID handling

"We've been 100% transparent during the pandemic. Our strategy was 100% correct. Certain shortcomings always happen," said PM.
https://www.panarmenian.net/arm/news/285204/

Take the photo of your ID...

... and show it to a police officer during a COVID-check, said Justice Minister. "That way they won't take you to the police station for identification if you forget your ID."
That's actually a GENIUS move! 🤔 A new technology?? https://www.armtimes.com/hy/article/195910

Laureates of Hrant Dink Prize

Istanbul's Armenian Agos newspaper writer Hrant Dink would be 66yo on September 15th. He was gunned down for his views and ethnicity in 2007.
Every year Agos gives a prize named after Dink to prominent figures. This year's first winner is Osman Kavala, an activist friendly with Kurds and Armenians, who was arrested with propped up "coup" charges by the Erdogan regime, after being charged with organizing "riots" earlier. Europe has urged Erdogan to release him.
 
The second laureate is female rights activist Egyptian Mozn Hasan.
 
Popular singer Arto Tunjboyajyan performed for the audience during the online ceremony, joined by Dink's widow who sang the late journalist's favorite song "Yes byulbyul em".
https://youtu.be/_LqdZlV5ATg
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195858

the cattle cave to become a tourist spot

A local businessman from Alaverdi, Lori launched a cave-restaurant (not cafe-restaurant... stupid aurocorrect) called "Mendz Er" last month.
The cave used to be a barn full of crap. He began cleaning it up in 2000. Initially, he wanted to turn it into a craftsmanship center but later decided to mix arts with a restaurant.
The cave will soon have a gallery and already has art pieces dating back to the 9th century.
Photos: https://armtimes.com/hy/article/194619

grandmaster Lyovik Aronyan

... is playing in Sent Louis Rapid & Blitz chess tournament.
He defeated the Iranian opponent while playing with blacks, defeated Russian Grischuk with whites, then tied another Russian with blacks.
So far he leads the tournament with 5 points.
https://armtimes.com/hy/article/195875
 
You've read 2307 words.

Disclaimer & Terminology

1) The accused are innocent until proven guilty in the court of law, even if they sound guilty.
2) Currency in Armenian ֏ unless specified otherwise.
3) NSS/SIS/SOC = law enforcement agencies. QP = Civil Contract Party. LHK = Bright Armenia Party. BHK = Prosperous Armenia Party. HHK = Republican Party. ARF = Armenian Revolutionary Federation Party
4) ARCHIVE of older posts by Idontknowmuch: PART 1 ; PART 2 ; PART 3 ; PART 4 ; PART 5.
5) ARCHIVE of older posts by Armeniapedia.
submitted by ar_david_hh to armenia [link] [comments]


2020.09.16 09:40 skunk_box [WTB] Lots of stuff

Looking to get:
  1. 1939 BU Canada Parliament Dollar
  2. Festival of Great Britain George VI 1951 Crown in original box
  3. A British Crown with King George slaying the Dragon on it (Victoria and Edward preferred)
  4. 1902-1910 Any date British Edward VII Florin, any condition
  5. VF-XF Barber coin (dime, quarter, half), common date, uncleaned, good luster or good circulation cameo
  6. British Queen Victoria coins, any bust, condition, denomination (1/32 farthing up to the crown and anything and everything in between)
  7. 10s, 20s, 30s BU Wheat penny, no toning, red
  8. Z.A.R. South African coins, any denomination
  9. BU buffalo nickel 1913 (any type) or 1937 D/P
  10. Nicer seated coinage
  11. 1967 Centennial Canada Bunny Nickel
  12. 1967 Canada specimen set centennial in OGP, nicer toning preferred
  13. British hammered silver, preferably Queen Elizabeth the First
  14. British Cartwheel pennies/2p 1797 any condition, culls are fine
  15. Dutch East India company copper VOC duits, any yeacondition
  16. German Notgeld Westphalia coinage, any denomination/condition
  17. Clad British Commemorative Crowns
  18. British trade dollar
  19. Prussia 2/5 marks german states Freidric-Wilheim
  20. 1956 proof coins, US
  21. 1924/5/6 50 Kopeks and rouble USSR
  22. German states coinage (any and all)
  23. 1999 Canada Proof Quarters (any month, silver or clad)
  24. Gibraltar 2003 1 pound coin
  25. 1973 Greek 2 Drachmai Owl Design (or 1 drachma)
  26. Prussia German State 3 mark 1910
  27. German States victory 3 marks
  28. Napoleon French coins
  29. Coins with security edges, like this, this (second one from bottom), and/or these, examples include 1943 1/2 rupee and the 1993 5 dollars from hong kong
  30. 1898-1921 France 10 centimes, this
  31. 1922-1935 Italy 1 Lira, this
  32. 1974-87 France 10 Francs, this
  33. Bahamas 1 dollar banknote any condition
  34. Any version any year, BU or proof, Australian dragon 1 oz silver bars, solo dragon or double dragon
  35. 1921 Paderborn Notgeld set 50 pfennig to 2 mark, preferably with the original envelope and uncirculated, all four runs a-d
  36. Saxony State Issued Porcelan Notgeld, 1921, these and this, but gold gilded
  37. Guatemala 1/4 real, the tiny ones
  38. 1971 Mauritius 10 Rupees, this
  39. Greek Euro, owl design (any type)
  40. Coins of Edward VIII, any type
Details coins are fine as long as they aren't harshly cleaned or polished, unless specified
Holed coins, big scratches, rim dings, post-jewelry, and anything similar are fine as long as they are confined, and not like polishing which covers the entire coin.


Paypal cashapp venmo zelle and crypto
submitted by skunk_box to Coins4Sale [link] [comments]


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